tim.tdj

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About tim.tdj

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  1. Hi As I understand it in perhaps somewhat simplistic terms, cells can be divided into the following two broad types according to how they interact with energy: Type 1. Energy-storage cells such as fat storage cells and liver glycogen storage cells which store energy. Type 2. Energy-using cells such as brain cells and muscle cells which use energy to perform various functions including cell division. I would like to gain some understanding of the differences between how insulin and possibly other hormones interact with different types of cell. I would therefore be very grateful to anyone who can answer the following 14 questions. 01. The two types of cell I have listed above can obviously be further subdivided into lots of different sub-types. Is there an overlap between Type 1 and Type 2 cells? 02. If I understand correctly, insulin acts as a "key" to a "doorway" in each cell which, when open, allows energy (usually in the form of glucose) to enter the cell and that these insulin "keys" respond to various hormonal instructions which depend on various conditions. Am I correct? 03. Am I correct in guessing that insulin is just one out of a range of different "keys" to different types of cell "doorways"? 04. Is insulin required to allow energy into every type of cell or just certain types of cell? If just certain types, which types? 05. I have read that insulin primarily responds to the level of glucose in the blood meaning that if it gets higher than the equilibrium amount, insulin gets activated. Is this correct? 06. What else, if anything, does insulin respond to? 07. When insulin is activated, is there a priority system for which type of cell receives the energy let in by the insulin or is it just randomly allocated? If there is a priority system, how does it work? 08. I am guessing that the "keys" which allow energy out of Type 1 cells in response to the level of glucose in the blood getting lower than the equilibrium amount are not insulin. Am I correct? If yes, what are these "keys"? 09. Is there a priority system for letting energy out of different sub-types of Type 1 cells? If yes, how does it work? 10. Whenever energy is released from liver glycogen storage cells, is it always released in the form of glucose? 11. Whenever energy is released from fat storage cells, is it always released in the form of non-glucose chemicals such as ketones? 12. Do non-glucose energy forms such as ketones require "keys" to be let in to cells? If yes, what are these "keys"? 13. Am I correct that "insulin resistance" is when the "lock" on a cell "doorway" gets broken as a result of overuse? 14. Can a non-glucose energy form such as a ketone get into an insulin resistant cell more easily than glucose? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  2. Confusion about salivary amylase and starch

    Hi CharonY Thank you very much for the clarification.
  3. Confusion about salivary amylase and starch

    Hi CharonY Thank you very much for your reply. I have managed to find on the Internet the article you referred to and it is rather confusing in places. for example, here is a quote from it: The above graph is Fig. 2A. To me it looks as is there is a clear difference between the two groups so what do you think is meant by what I have quoted from the article?
  4. Hi Everyone A few weeks ago I was watching a documentary on TV in which a doctor said that people with a very low amount of salivary amylase should consume much less starch because it will cause them to have blood sugar spikes. This confused me because I would have thought that if a person has less amylase to convert starch into sugar, they will be able to consume more starch, not less. Does anyone here understand why the doctor said what he said? Thank you very much, Kind regards Tim
  5. Query about sunflower lecithin

    Hi DrP and Silvestru, Thank you very much for you replies. Which of the two forms would you say is more healthy? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  6. Query about sunflower lecithin

    Hi Everyone Does anyone here know what the chemical difference is between liquid sunflower lecithin and powdered sunflower lecithin? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  7. Powder suspended in oil?

    Hi Everyone Lets say we have a an extremely fine powder which is a water-soluble crystalline solid at room temperature. Lets say we also have an oil which is less dense than the powder in its non-powdered form. If the powder is mixed into the oil, am I correct in thinking that it will be much harder for a particle of the powder to fall through the oil than it would be for a feather to fall through the air? Will the settling of the powder at the bottom of the container be so slow as to be almost imperceptible? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  8. BMI for safe visceral fat?

    Hi SringJunky Thank you very much for your advice. I am on keto so hopefully my current sugar intake is below the danger level. Kind regards Tim
  9. BMI for safe visceral fat?

    Hi StringJunky and Sensei Thank you both very much for your replies. Yes, Sensei. I was thinking about TOFI when I made the original post. The lower end of the BMI scale in the study mentioned in the Wikipedia article Sensei linked to is 20. I have actually recently been on a diet which in the last half year (approx) has so far taken my BMI from about 24 to 19.7 so I think I may now be safe. I don't know though. I rather wish that the study had included as a group the range 18.5 to 20. I have found a link to the study. It is as follows: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225060033_Excess_body_fat_in_obese_and_normal-weight_subjects Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  10. BMI for safe visceral fat?

    Hi Everyone Does anyone here know what BMI value you have to get below in order to absolutely guarantee that you do not have a harmful amount of fat in or around any of your organs? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim
  11. How much emulsifier?

    Hi DrP Thank you very much indeed for all your help. Kind regards Tim
  12. How much emulsifier?

    Hi DrP Thank you very much for your reply. I am guessing that the following question is a very difficult one to answer so I will fully understand if you can't answer it. Do you have any idea how to calculate the minimum amount of surfactant needed so that if given a large amount of initial agitation, the oil:water ratio at the bottom of the container will stably remain the same as at the top of the container? (Putting this another way, so there is no separation whatsoever.)
  13. How much emulsifier?

    Hi DrP Thank you very much for your reply. Does this mean that the more surfactant you add, the smaller will be the average droplet size? (assuming you shake the container after adding the surfactant) Also, am I correct that if there is just a single droplet of oil in a container of water and the oil droplet is surrounded by a layer of surfactant, the surfactant will not stop the oil droplet rising to the surface of the water?
  14. How much emulsifier?

    Hi StringJunky and DrP. Thank you both very much for your replies. To be honest, I was only after a rough answer which I think you have given. It seems to me that not very much emulsifier is needed compared to the main substances being mixed together. If only a small number of oil molecules in a mixture are bonded by a small number of emulsifier molecules to a small number of water molecules in the mixture, do any of you know how this can help the non-bonded oil and water molecules remain mixed together?
  15. How much emulsifier?

    Hi Everyone Lets say there is a container which contains 50g of oil floating on top of 50g of water. What is the minimum amount of washing-up liquid needed in order to fully and permanently emulsify the oil and water? Thank you very much. Kind regards Tim