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  1. I recently prepared ammonia water (likely pure NH3 (aq) ) by placing distilled water (DW) in a large mouth vessel together in a container (which was twice the volume of the DW) loaded with yellow colored household ammonia rich in surfactants, etc. I carefully placed a plug, prepared by wrapping layers of Reynold's Al foil (Al 98% with remainder Fe and Si) around my finger full of NaCl, into the household ammonia and sealed the entire chamber. The logic is that as NH3 has much reduced solubility in seawater, I expected with time the DW would amass a good amount of the liberated ammonia fr
  2. Just add salt and freeze out the Na2SO4 as a hydrate! I have actually performed this experiment: MgSO4 + 2 NaCl = MgCl2 + Na2SO4 After freezing to remove the Na2SO4 hydrate, the aqueous MgCl2 can be refrozen to create the interestingly clear MgCl2 crystals. Note, an excess of MgSO4 may also cause the formation of 3Na2SO4·MgSO4 However, on standing in air, the crystals develop a white powder coating, so be careful on how you keep the crystals! This technique of relying on the separation out of the Na2SO4.nH2O may work in many cases except possibly when a double salt wi
  3. A key word is Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP)! This can bring the concept of radical generation (like the hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical, ClO2, products from ozone and water, oxygen acting on transition metals creating reactive oxygen species like perhydroxyl radical, superoxide radical anion,..) to bear on breaking down pollutants and the like. Photolysis, electrolysis, sonolysis, radiation treatment, high temperatures, ...can provide paths to radical formation. Redox reactions can create radicals also (research Fenton reaction, Fenton-type reactions, Electro-Fenton, Phot
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