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  1. This may connect with Uber-Dan's question . Is there a lower limit in very dilute electrolyte ? Sewage treatment by .25 Kwh removes .06g /litre Nitrogen in 1000 litres. If water has .0004 g /l. is it too dilute to efficiently drop the level to .0002 g/ l. Nitrogen? It's not home-work I'm 71 and 5 months.
  2. Strange, This is Engineering . The data is the point and words 'battle' and 'boomerang' have no effect on perpendicular fail of MPa . The title is "yield , fail in battle". This is an engineering pun on failing in a fight. Here is "battle": "NARRATIONBattles between Europeans and Aborigines occurred throughout Australia, including the Darling. Catalyst: Toorale Man murder mystery - ABC TV Science https://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/4211835.htm Apr 7, 2015 - Bizarrely, the skull wounds on Toorale Man appear similar to those on gladiators in Imperial Rome.
  3. Strange, All the data is used to find the MPa force on a mulga-blade boomerang when cutting bone. Here's the humeral trauma: The death of Kaakutja: a case of peri-mortem weapon trauma in an ... https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/.../core-reader Sep 15, 2016 - A trauma was observed on the posterior of the right humeral head (see Figure 8a & b). A circular segment of cortical bone had been entirely removed, exposing the trabeculae, in a wound with clearly defined sharp edges, measuring 14mm in diameter. Oxford dictionary . battle fight ,..join
  4. Makara festival is in January. Just found this. Skt माघ mAgha February माघ mAgha January - February maga priest of the sun. "The Shakyas were by tradition sun worshippers, who called themselves Ādicca nāma gottena ("kinsmen of the sun") and descendants of the sun. As Buddha ( a Sakya) states in the Sutta-Nipāta, "They are of the sun-lineage (adiccagotta), Sakiyans by birth." The Egyptian crocodile Sobek became Sobek Ra of the sun. Skt ra "shining" may be in *Maka ra , makara crocodile. Makara is used by both Hindus and Buddhists.
  5. First post " My inquiry is about the ultimate failure of 2mm thick wood blade at maximum human arm-speed of 40metre/sec ". Aircraft can be tested by windflow against stationary plane. The MPa force would be the same in a moving blade or stationary blade as with the bat if the same energy system ( time , distance) was used. The width of the skull trauma is around 3cm (crudely) and cortical plate excision is comparable with baseball deformation distance. The different spherical ball in fact becomes like hemi-sphere after the low-resistance spherical cap absorbs limited force. The ball ma
  6. Hullo Strange "In the 1st-millennium BCE Sumerian names were not normally translated into Akkadian, but rather rendered in the original Sumerian as loan-words/scientific terms. Capricornus "Goat-Horned", from MULSUḪUR.MAŠ "The Goat-Fish", marking winter solstice. It is a mythological hybrid depicted on boundary stones from before 2000 BC as a symbol of Ea, Babylon. mulSUHUR.MASH If we omit the six names GUD.AN.NA (Taurus), SIBA.ZI.AN.NA (Orion), SHU.GI (Perseus + and northern part of Taurus?), GAM (Auriga or Capella), SHIM.MAH (south-west part of Pisces) and
  7. Experts don't know about this . By logic, non-experts do know. So I should get some knowledge from readers here. The Sumerian/ Babylonian father-god Ea had a goat-fish , Capricorn, suhur.mash. Akkadian. suhurmashu/i] . Sumerian Mashdagu is the first month of the year, corresponding to Capricorn. . Akkadian mashartarnu big fish. maste dried fish. Sum. Tammabukku dragon from the Land of Mash . Sanskrit मच्छ maccha fish . Hindi . makara muchch Capricorn . Makara Sankranti, Maghi, is a festival day in the Hindu calendar, in reference to deity Su
  8. swansont, A sports record gives an approximate limit of human energy output for each muscular process. There is a constant ~40m/sec for cricket bowling , baseball pitching and ice-hockey puck hit. Would you agree that the recorded .0007sec for ball impact is reasonable for striking a skull with layer of skin ? Maybe the ball deforms half-way when stopped, then full-deformation on return velocity. A person's head likely has similar movement on impact to the half-way deformed ball. A spherical ball will not give major resistance until the bat is near final depth in contrast to the flat
  9. studiot The skull image shows a low-angle entry which resembles axial parallel compression. Figures on bone vary widely and frontal skull compression fail ranges from 23-70 MPa. This is greater than the mulga perpendicular fail of 8-14MPa which is exceeded by the possible 63MPa stress , from the baseball analogy. Femur and frontal are both trabecular diploe bone . This author tested pigskull which didn't yield at all and he says animal leg-bone is closer to human skull ..https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/death-of-kaakutja-a-case-of-perimortem-weapon-trauma-in-an-
  10. studiot, The topic can't really be described any more clearly . The following was quoted above and is not my words: "An approximate minimum cross-sectional area of the femur is ( .0003 sq m). We divide the compressive force by the cross-sectional area to find the compressive stress on the bone. Our approximate value for the ultimate strength of bone that would be required to support 30x body weight was 80 MPa, which is actually less than the measured value of 205 MPa ( compressive fail) , so the claim that the femur can support 30x body weight seems reasonable." https://openor
  11. John, >The (average) force exerted by an object when it comes to a halt is equal to the (average) force used to accelerate it times the ratio of the distance it was accelerated to the distance over which it stops. In the 30 people situation, the forces are given without time but a is G. The baseball and wooden blade reach acceleration at point of delivery and deccelerate on contact , with probably equal time. So I used the examples as close duplicates with their force values. >It's also important to recognise that the "strength" (however you measure it) of the o
  12. Back to the drawing-board: "30 people weigh about 26,000N. An approximate minimum cross-sectional area of the femur is ( .0003 sq m). We divide the compressive force by the cross-sectional area to find the compressive stress on the bone. Our approximate value for the ultimate strength of bone that would be required to support 30x body weight was 80 MPa, which is actually less than the measured value of 205 MPa ( compressive fail) , so the claim that the femur can support 30x body weight seems reasonable." https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/bodyphysics/chapter/strength/
  13. OK then given velocity , mass and area of contact could you demonstrate the MPa equation?
  14. 1 million pascals is rational . The gravity figure in Megapascal is not , it's diabolical and is not given as a2.  . MPa has a lot of explaining to do.
  15. Maximum velocity for baseball / cricket ball throw is ~ 100mph , ~ 40m/sec. I'm wrong to say 2mm thickness at contact , it should be .02mm sharp edge. A 5cm length of cut gives .1 sq cm. So .1kg. 402 / .1 is 1600 which is 16MPa. Maybe.
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