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About SStell

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  1. Hydrogen Ions ?

    So as the hydrogen ion is fueling the phosphorylation of ADP in ATP synthase it is being transferred from one protein to another and is really never a naked proton?
  2. Hydrogen Ions ?

    Thank you
  3. When for example hydrogen ions are pumped against a chemical gradient and then used to power ATP synthase are these hydrogen ions naked protons or are they attached to a water molecule and form hydronium ions?
  4. Thank you That helps me understand the conversion between deoxyribose and ribose but are all NTPs phosphorylated by one type of ATP synthase or are there multiple types of ATP synthases?
  5. Is there a protein complex embedded in a membrane that uses H+ to attach a phosphate group onto ADP for each of the 8 nucleotides? dATP, dGTP, dTTP, dCTP, rATP, rGTP, rUTP, rCTP? Or can you link me with some information in this regards? Thanks.
  6. It is commonly accepted that 36 ATP molecules come from one glucose molecule. How is this number arrived at, determined, observed or experimentally verified?
  7. Thank you for all your input. Just seemed to be a plausible and testable idea. More proof reading = less change, Less proof reading = more change. Could be epigenetic methylation silencing control of 'proof reading gene'. Different parts of the genome are effected differently. Thanks again. But natural selection probably does a fine job just on its own as Bender implied.
  8. Hypothesis: There is some mechanism that functions to control the rate of mutation for DNA. Certain regions of the genome are allowed to mutate at a higher rate than other regions. Possibly in the proof-reading mechanism. More proof-reading versus less proof-reading. This would allow highly conserved areas to remain nearly intact generation after generation while other regions would change at the natural rate. Any ideas or data?
  9. thanks, I think I am getting it
  10. Babcock, So the electron would likely move from B to A. From low electron affinity to high electron affinity? Charon, So a photon is absorbed by a molecule (chlorophyll) which elevates an electron to a higher energy band, which then allows it to be transferred more easily to a molecule at a more negative redox potential with maybe some quantum tunneling to boot? And so on. So the electron itself is not the carrier of any extra energy but the atom or molecule it came from put that electron in that higher band and that and that alone allows the transfer to atoms of higher electron affinity? My whole confusion comes from the standard everyday diagrams of photosynthesis. They use the term 'energized' electron. I just didn't quite grasp that term. As electrons have no orbitals or energy bands or levels that I was knowledgeable of. I am wrong a lot so this would not be anything new. I usually understood a high energy electron as one with increased velocity as in particle physics etc. Kinetic Energy. So is this an example of higher chemical Potential Energy which allows it to then 'fall' down a cascade of proteins in the electron transfer chain?
  11. So it seems that the electron is not carrying any 'extra' energy but is being placed into a higher redox potential spot by a molecule that gained its extra energy by just having the extra electron? It's not the electron but the molecule or atom that transfers the electron that has been 'energized'? I guess my query is about different energy levels or 'energized' single electrons. I just didn't think they did that. So it's the molecule or atom that has been 'energized' and not the electron. Or am I as usual completely confused?