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chemguy

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  1. Hydrogen has a single electron. Two forces may be associated with the electron of hydrogen. The forces act simultaneously. Force may be represented as a vector. The vectors of force may have a “radiant state” and a “steady state”. The states may be defined by “conditions” imposed upon the vectors. The steady state will return the binding energy of the electron, and the radiant state will give the Stephan-Boltzmann constant. Do conditions imposed upon the vectors represent different states of the electron? Reference; URL deleted 04 The States of Hydrogen
  2. Generally a tensor may be represented as a product of vectors. A “reducing tensor” may be represented as the average of vector triple products. A reducing tensor will also “reduce” to an average of scalar products. Acceleration may be represented as a vector. A field (gravitational, electric, or magnetic) may be represented using “reducing tensors” of acceleration. An “equivalent EFE” may be written as reducing tensors. The equivalent EFE will then reduce to scalar products of acceleration. Suitable definitions of acceleration will give the Schwarzschild metric. Christoffel symbols are not required. Is a “reducing tensor” mathematically valid? Reference; http://newstuff77.weebly.com 02 The Reducing Tensor 02 Reducing Tensors.pdf
  3. This article suggests the end of the 12th dynasty of Egypt as the time of the exodus. Egyptologists consider the 12th dynasty to be the apex of the Middle Kingdom. This dynasty was based at (or nearby) the city of Memphis (Noph or No-Ptah), which agrees with details of the scriptural account and Hebrew tradition. Pharaoh Amenemhet I may have been the ruler of Lower Egypt (near Memphis) when Joseph was appointed as the second ruler of the land (Genesis 41:40-46) and when Jacob and his family moved into Egypt (Genesis 45:16-20) to buy food during a great famine. Contemporary records of the 11th dynasty based in Thebes refer to "seven empty years" following the death of Mentuhotep III (in Thebes). This may represent a time of famine, co-incident with a seven year period during the reign of Amenemhet I (in Memphis). Seven years of famine did occur over a wide area. (Genesis 41:41-46). The scriptures say that Joseph died at the age of 110 (Genesis 50:22). This may imply that he lived into the reign of Amenemhet II. There may be evidence to suggest that Hebrews were living in Egypt as free people during the early part of the dynasty. An Egyptian official named Khnumhotep II is believed to have lived during the reign of pharaohs Amenemhet II and Senusret II. His tomb contains paintings of everyday life in Egypt. Two scenes show Semetic people (possibly Israelites) offering gifts (tribute, or tithes, or taxes) to Egyptian scribes. At this time the Hebrews were not enslaved. One scene includes women and children. This agrees with the scriptural account that the Israelites “became fruitful and began to increase greatly, and they kept on multiplying and growing mightier at an extraordinary rate” (Exodus 1:7). It would be unusual if this scene did not include children. The scene probably represents some occasions familiar to Khnumhotep. “The oppression” may have begun with Senusret III (Exodus 1:11). It is noteworthy that the scriptures do not claim that the Hebrews were forced to work with stone, nor work on any pyramids. This may have been offensive to Egyptian religious beliefs. They did work making bricks. It may be that baby Moses was adopted by a daughter of pharaoh Senusret III. This pharaoh had at least four daughters; Sithathor, Menet, Senetsenebtysy, and Mereret. They probably outlived their father and were eventually interred in the royal burial complex at the pyramid of Senusret III. These daughters had the title “kings daughter” and this agrees with biblical terminology (Exodus 2:9). Pharaoh Amenemhet III was one of the most notable and powerful rulers of Egypt, he was probably the second pharaoh of the oppression. During this time the royalty and clergy of Memphis were closely linked. The Israelites were kept in slavery, producing bricks to build the storage cities of Pithom and Ra-amses. There is no need to assume any connection between the city of Ra-amses and later Pharaohs of the same name. Amenemhet IV was probably the pharaoh of the exodus. The 12th dynasty did not gradually weaken and decay slowly into oblivion. The end of this dynasty was sudden. Amenemhet IV has no known pyramid. This is reasonable if he died in the Red Sea and his body was lost. Amenemhet IV was succeeded by his sister Sobekneferu (possibly his wife), the first known female pharaoh of Egypt. This may be because there was no male heir. The son of Amenemhet IV may have died during the tenth plague. Sobekneferu ruled less than four years, when she died the Twelfth Dynasty came to a finish. Amenemhet IV shared in construction at two temples. One was a temple begun by his father Amenemhet III and was dedicated to Renenutet and Sobek, the other was a shrine at the temple of Hathor (the cow goddess). Renenutet was represented as the serpent goddess, and Sobek was represented as a crocodile and associated with the River Nile. The first miracle (Exodus 7:10-12) performed by Aaron was turning his rod into a snake which ate the Egyptian serpents. This would be a humiliation directed toward the goddess Renenutet. The first plague (Exodus 7:19-25) was the turning of the Nile into blood, this was a humiliation of the god Sobek. This plague included canals, and reservoirs (Exodus 7:19). The 12th dynasty was known for promoting irrigation projects, including canals and reservoirs. The goddess Hathor was humiliated by the fifth plague (Exodus 9:1-6) directed against livestock. The very gods promoted by Amenemhet IV were all humiliated. Due to the terrible effects of the ten plagues and the loss of elite military forces in the red sea, it is reasonable to assume that the twelfth dynasty would weaken quickly and collapse into anarchy. A time of anarchy did occur beginning with the so called 13th dynasty. The 13th dynasty was not factually dynastic, it appears to be a time of multiple rulers struggling for power. This period is sometimes described as an era of chaos and disorder. After the Israelites along with a great number of Egyptians departed, the land of Goshen would have been virtually empty. Sometime later Canaanites moved into this “void region”. These newcomers would have occupied empty villages, with access to lush marshes, pastures and irrigated fields, free for the taking. They prospered and eventually became powerful and ruled over Lower Egypt. They were known as the Hyksos (foreign rulers). The Israelites were long gone when the Hyksos ruled. Egyptian chronology gives the span of the 12th Dynasty to be approximately 225 years. Biblical chronology gives the span of Israelite residence in Egypt to be approximately 215 years. This would suggest that the Hebrews were resident in Egypt for almost the entire span of the twelfth dynasty. The oppression may have lasted approximately 80 years giving approximately 135 years in Goshen before enslavement. Biblical events may be distributed over the dynasty according to the table below; List of Rulers 12th Dynasty Pharaoh Years Possible Events Amenemhet I 29 Joseph appointed as overseer, Jacob enters Goshen, Jacob dies Senusret I 45 Israel Prospers Amenemhet II 34 Joseph dies Senusret II 19 Israel increases greatly, Khnumhotep II dies Senusret III 39 Israel enslaved, Moses adopted Amenemhet III 46 The oppression continues, Moses flees to Midian Amenemhet IV 9 The Exodus, collapse of the dynasty Sobekneferu 4 End of dynasty 8 rulers 225 The foregoing points of interest suggest that the 12th dynasty may have ruled Lower Egypt at the time of the residence of Israel in the land of Goshen. Well known archeologist Lorenzo Nigro PhD directed an excavation at Jericho. Grain seeds from the final Canaanite city were tested for Carbon-14 levels. Two samples of grain from layers associated with the destruction of the city were tested. Apparently each sample provided a different dating result; one sample dated to 1347 BC ± 85 years one sample dated to 1597 BC ± 91 years Taken individually the samples give inconclusive dating results. If the dating results are averaged the “combined result” gives; 1472 BC According to the Biblical account the exodus occurred approximately 40 years before the destruction of Jericho. If the combined dating result is reasonably accurate, this would give an approximate date for the exodus as; 1513 BC.
  4. A vector of “incremental distance” (in 4D) has a change of direction with no change of magnitude. A component of incremental distance may be associated with a component of acceleration. This is the “Schwarzschild vector”. Simple transformation should give the Schwarzschild metric.31 The Schwarzschild Vector.pdf
  5. The Janet Periodic Table was first published in 1929. This table may be re-arranged as a series of four square matrices. Each matrix is a different size. I believe that square matrices are important in physics. If each cell of each matrix is represented as a cube, the matrices may then be stacked vertically. The result resembles a "stepped pyramid" having four levels. This gives a three dimensional periodic table. The structure relates any cube (cell) to a unique set of quantum numbers, which may also identify a "location" within the structure. The quantum numbers of any element also defines its location within the 3D table. I wonder if the energy of a `most significant electron` may be related to its location and if subtle properties of elements may be revealed by this 3D table.
  6. The Higgs Mechanism requires a field (the Higgs field). This field has been added to the Standard Model. Is the Higgs field a "new form" of an old idea (the eather)?
  7. I apologize to you imatfaal, for neglecting to explain the indexing in my previous post. So here is my attempt to explain. There are two types of interaction; primary and secondary. Forces are associated with each type of interaction. The interaction you described in your previous post is a secondary interaction. This type may include the Newton gravitational equation, or the Coulomb equation. Two objects interact “indirectly”. A field of some sort is associated with each object. The fields interact directly if they are compatible. The force of secondary interaction represents an “indirect” force, and is the result of combining fields. A primary interaction is due to stresses placed on the continuum by a massive (or charged) object. Assume also that a counter stress also acts upon the object. There are three basic types of stress; shear, pressure, and temperature (thermal stress). The EFE accounts for all types of stress. The result of such stress is a field of acceleration. This field may be represented as a deformation of the continuum. It represents the difference between the Schwarzschild metric and the Minkowski metric. The origin of a reference system may (or may not) co-incide with the center of an object. If the object exists, assume they are co-incident. In order to deform the continuum a force must be distributed through it. This distribution of force is the primary interaction. A force (associated with stress) acts upon the continuum and varies with distance ® from the center of the object. The distortional force of primary interaction (Fnx) may be represented as; Fnx = mngx The indexing associates characteristics with and object (n) or with the continuum (x). A feature of the object is mass (mn). A feature of the continuum is field acceleration (gx). gx = vx2/r It may be assumed that the continuum experiences vibration. Where; vx represents an average velocity of vibration. Assume; v0 represents a special invariant velocity of vibration (v04 = G) A distortional force may be represented as; Fn0 = mng0 = mnv02/r = mnG½/r = En0/r = En02/hc The “deformation energy” (En0) is; En0 = mnG½ A “Plank object” has Plank mass (m0). The distortional force (F00) is; F00 = E002/hc = (m02G)/hc Assume; F00 is the magnitude of a unit vector of force. (F00 = 1) Giving: F00 = 1 = (m02G)/hc And; m0 = (hc/G)½
  8. Thank you imatfaal, for your posting. Your dimensional analysis was convincing. I goofed here (wrong assumption). I have a similar question concerning forces. I hope you will comment. So here it is; The Plank force is; FP = EP2/ħc Where; EP is Plank energy A general definition of force magnitude is; F = E2/ħc An indexed force magnitude (Fnx) may be written as; Fnx = (mnvx2)2/ħc A unit vector of force (F00) has a magnitude: |F00| = F00 = 1 The indexed unit force magnitude is; F00 = 1 = (m02v04)/ħc Assume; m0 is Plank mass V04 = G Then; F00 = (m02G)/ħc = 1 Giving the definition of Plank mass; m0 = (ħc/G)½ Does this imply that v0 is an invariant fundamental velocity somehow associated with gravity? Please comment. chemguy
  9. Can anyone please identify this energy? E = (ħc)½ Are there any references to it in the literature? Thank you. P.S. I prefer to write it as; E0 = (ħc)½ This energy may be inferred from Plank Units. The Plank force is; FP = EP2/ħc A general definition of force magnitude is; F = E2/ħc = ħc/λ2 A unit vector of force (F0) has a magnitude: |F0| = F0 = 1 A scalar definition is: F0 = E02/ħc = ħc/λ02 = 1 Giving; E0 = ±(ħc)½ and; E0 = ħc/λ0 Where; ħ is the reduced Plank constant; (ħ = h/2π) h is the Plank constant c is the light constant λ is wavelength
  10. Space is the "region" in which matter exists. Area is a subset of the region. A field is represented by a distribution of acceleration over a region. Time is part of acceleration, and therefore is also distributed over the region.
  11. The Einstein Field Equation (EFE) contains scalars and tensors. The EFE may be modified if the following substitutions are applied; - A tensor is represented as a four vector product of acceleration (arithmetic product) - The Ricci Scalar is represented as a scalar ratio of areas - The Einstein constant is represented as ratios of Plank units A field operator may be defined as a “four dot multiplier”. If the field operator acts upon the modified EFE, the result will be a scalar field equation (SFE) representing field strength. The SFE may also be written as an equation of “average field strength” (AFE). If “Schwarzschild conditions” apply, the SFE will reduce to the Schwarzschild metric. It follows that flat space-time is represented as the Minkowski metric. An emitter has both mass and an emissive surface area. If the mass/area ratio acts upon the SFE, then the SFE will transform to a scalar equation of stress (SSE). Stress may be represented as shear or as pressure. If “radiant conditions” apply, then the SSE may be simply related to black body radiation. blog link deleted by mod
  12. An acceleration field (not necessarily gravitation) may be represented by two vectors. A position vector identifies some point in space, and an acceleration vector will associate acceleration with the selected point. The acceleration vector must be “linked” to the position vector. This linkage is achieved by relating components of the acceleration vector to components of the position vector. The two vector representation of a field leads to a gravitational wave function. Please view; http://doulting.shawwebspace.ca/asset/view/7853/gravitational_wave_function.pdf
  13. The Periodic table of elements may be arranged in 3 dimensions as a stepped pyramid. Each chemical element is represented as a cubic block. The Janet Periodic Table aka the “Left Step” Periodic Table may be re-arranged into four square matrices. Each matrix is a different size. Each cell within a matrix represents an atomic element. A cell may be represented in 3 dimensions as a cube. The matrices may be stacked vertically so the “cores” (2x2 cells) are aligned vertically. The result is a “stepped pyramid” (Pyramid Table). One element is associated with each cube. The location of any cube within the structure is defined by location numbers. The atomic number of any element is a function of the location numbers of the corresponding cube. Each element has a defined position within the pyramid structure. Vertical “slices” through the table give interesting chemical relationships. Please see; http://doulting.shawwebspace.ca/asset/view/7853/b0_matrix_periodic_table.pdf
  14. A tensor of stress may be represented as a ratio of vectors. Please see; link removed
  15. A stressed field may be simply defined using various classes of magnitudes. The classes of magnitudes are associated with scalars, vectors, tensors, and outer products (also tensors of higher rank). A general metric (angular metric) may be obtained from a class defined field. This will reduce to the Kerr-Newman metric. .The Stress Field.htm
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