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Anyone heard this on genetic engineering of corn/soy?


pippo
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heard that engineered corn/soy now has been made so those plants/fruits produce their own "pesticides". Sounds like Star Trek. Can it be, people? Of course, this could start some histeria on us consuming these pesticides. Gotta be bunk.


so far, could only find this:

 

http://www.hoaxorfact.com/Health/gmo-corn-contains-harmful-insecticide-and-is-sold-unlabeled-facts-analysis.html

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These kinds of plants have been around for quite a while. Generally insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thurigiensis are being expressed by the plant. These proteins are known to be harmless to humans. In fact the bacterium and its toxin have been used widely for pest control before the production of GMOs.

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Thanks, charon. Good to now these proteins are harmless. But, how do the producers of GMO's manage to arrange the corn plant to actually produce the protein? How does the bacterium live in the corn plant and produce the protein. Im missing something here........

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(On The Topic Of Histeria)

I'm not exactly against the engineering of crops, but have you heard of Monsanto's "Terminator Seed"? It essentially produces a non-fertile seed so that it can't be reused. They do this so there seeds must be bought again, but think of the problems that has to potential to bring.

Edited by Ailurophobia
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I have mixed feelings about Monsanto's approach to agriculture. While I am not really against the genetic modification of plants (I think it has some pretty important uses in today's society, and it appears to be harmless to humans) I don't see it as a sustainable approach to agriculture (the fact that most [or all? not sure] GM plants are sterile prevents farmers from diversifying their crop based on artificial selection of desirable traits. Instead of choosing which corn to collect seed from, the corn that is disease- or cold- or drought-resistant, the farmer now chooses from Monsanto's selection of disease- or cold- or drought-resistant seed. This system is much more efficient, I suppose, but it doesn't appear sustainable). We will have to see how the practice of agriculture continues to evolve with access to GM crops. I think that we have seen the beneficial side of GM crops, increased yield, decreased losses, etc., but now we will soon begin to see the consequences, if there actually are any.

 

Also I totally agree pippo, it does sound like Star Trek!

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  • 1 month later...

(sorry for late reply/follow up- ben to busy)

 

Thaks, people, for the replies. Good to know proteins are not harmful. Im just trying to get more educated about the gmo concept. One good article (scientific source, credible) said overall, the net effect of gMO's is positive to the environment, and to humans. I just struggle daily with al the bunk which dominated the general public's perception/affirmations/contradictions/hypocrisy of GMO's.

 

For example, if youre a Organic only fanatic, you should embrace gmo's, since gmo's favor the use of occasional increase of herbicides, but LESS pesticides, and pesticides are by far more toxic to the ecosystem. a Respectable ecology research firm in the UK found a net positive effect.

 

Im eating gmo food, like any other food. Also, organic/non organic- no matter for me.

Edited by pippo
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(On The Topic Of Histeria)

I'm not exactly against the engineering of crops, but have you heard of Monsanto's "Terminator Seed"? It essentially produces a non-fertile seed so that it can't be reused. They do this so there seeds must be bought again, but think of the problems that has to potential to bring.

Or, you can just carry on using the sameseed supplies that you always have done.

Also, they don't do it "so the seed must be bought again". They do it because they were told very clearly to make sure that GM crops didn't escape into the wider environment.

This terminator technology does that .

And now there are complaints about them doing what they were told to do.

 

Also the idea that plants produce their own pesticides doesn't sound like Star Trek to me.

It sounds like what plants have been doing for millions of years.

 

What do you think poisonous plants are doing?

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Generally insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thurigiensis are being expressed by the plant. These proteins are known to be harmless to humans. In fact the bacterium and its toxin have been used widely for pest control before the production of GMOs.

That's not quite true. Bt pesticides (they are a family of related chemicals each adapted to a particular pest or type of pest) are generally as benign a pesticide as we know of, but their effects on such things as human intestinal flora under long term steady dosage, pregnancy and other such conditions, etc, have not been studied. http://ucbiotech.org/answer.php?question=31

 

But they do not bioaccumulate, poison indiscriminately, etc - so their loss of effectiveness, a very likely to inevitable effect of genetically engieneering them into landscape dominant monocultures, is one of the serious costs of GMOs as we have them.

 

 

For example, if youre a Organic only fanatic, you should embrace gmo's, since gmo's favor the use of occasional increase of herbicides, but LESS pesticides, and pesticides are by far more toxic to the ecosystem

False three ways: Herbicides are just as environmentally and ecologically problematical as pesticides (fungicides are probably worse than either), GMOs in general have no consistent effect on the use of any agricultural chemical (it depends on the particular modification, they are all different), and organic "fanatics" (such as the people who avoided eating trans fats all those years when all the sober scientific types had declared them safe) have almost nothing in the way of GMOs avaialble to them - all the marketed GMOs are engineered to express or be dependent on aspects of industrial agriculture that organic fanatics try to avoid.

 

It's quite possible that a GMO could present a sort of philosophical challange to organic food preference - such as chestnuts from an American chestnut tree (the best nut producers) with engineered in blight resistance from a naturally resistant Asian chestnut tree - but these potential benefits of genetic engineering do not yet exist commercially.

 

 

 

One good article (scientific source, credible) said overall, the net effect of gMO's is positive to the environment, and to humans

Nobody knows yet whether or not that will be true. So far, the indications are negative - the more benign herbicides and pesticides are the ones being destroyed (their replacements look ugly at present), the gains in erosion from no-till are offset by the loss of set-aside land and increased use of fertilizer, the spread of resistance abetted by GMOs as well as the threat of actual code transfer has effects not yet studied but unlikely to be either minor or for the better, the reassurances that there would be no medical or physiological effect on humans seem to have been based on assumptions not met in practice, and so forth.

 

 

 

Also, they don't do it "so the seed must be bought again". They do it because they were told very clearly to make sure that GM crops didn't escape into the wider environment.

The increase in their opportunity for profits and economic power was not invisible to them.

 

The fact that untill forced they did nothing to make sure their engineerred code did not escape is worth noting - it's probably a good idea to make sure we can continue to force them to take ordinary precautions, and not get ourselves in a position, say, where we or anyone else sharing our ecosystem were dependent on them for our food supply.

Edited by overtone
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"Bt pesticides (they are a family of related chemicals each adapted to a particular pest or type of pest) are generally as benign a pesticide as we know of, but their effects on such things as human intestinal flora under long term steady dosage, pregnancy and other such conditions, etc, have not been studied"

Guess again.

Since they have been used for a long time and no effects have shown up we know that, at worst, they don't have much effect on, for exapmple, pregnant women.

There has been no carefully controlled trial, but the practical truth is that we know they don't do much damage.

Of course, this may reflect that fat that pregnant women don't generally eat much raw cotton.

That's just as well because cotton is known to be toxic to humans

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gossypol#Toxicity_and_potential_food_source

 

"But they do not bioaccumulate, poison indiscriminately, etc - so their loss of effectiveness, a very likely to inevitable effect of genetically engieneering them into landscape dominant monocultures, is one of the serious costs of GMOs as we have them"
so, your complaint about GM is that it won't work for ever? A bit like conventional pesticides the, isn't it?

Anyway, because the stuff isn't sprayed about it only reaches the target organisms (those that eat the protected plants) so it can only expect to induce resistance in those insects.

that reduces the pressure of the "insects in general" genome to come up with resistance.

So, targeting only those bugs we want to kill will lead to less selection pressure for resistance to evolve.

 

"The increase in their opportunity for profits and economic power was not invisible to them."

Nor to their opponents.

So?

 

"The fact that untill forced they did nothing to make sure their engineerred code did not escape is worth noting"

Yes, it indicates that they were happy to live in a world where these things were "free" in the world.

So they must have known that these things were safe.

Now, I contend that those people know more about GMO than you (or I) do. They are happy to let these organisms out into the wild i.e into their own living space.

Is you reluctance built on evidence or prejudice?

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With regards to Bt toxins, they appear to be less harmful when being expressed in tissue rather than simply being sprayed (which can also be done). The latter of course provides more sources of exposure. The general consensus in the literature appears to be that based on existing studies the effects are overall less harmful than the often unrestrained spraying with pesticides.

Most studies that have shown effects e.g. on mice in limited studies tend not to replicate their findings in larger or meta-analyses.

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There has been no carefully controlled trial, but the practical truth is that we know they don't do much damage

We have almost no practical experience with the GMO inabled ingestion of Bt, or the other medical etc side effects of somatic expression of it in a food plant - it's not the same as the exposure regimes common in use of it thus far.

 

Even less have we studied the ecological effects, as was shown by the reaction to the onset of honeybee collapse disorder - studies were begun at that time, into the possible effects of Bt on the most thorougly studied and best known insect on the planet as it was living in the most controlled and simplified semi-domesticated circumstances of any wild animal. They didn't know, you see, what those effects might be. They are still looking into them.

 

 

And yes, as noted repeatedly now and central to this matter -> there have been no carefully controlled trials <-. Remember that when the urge to demand evidence from such trials strikes you as you read my posts.

 

 

 

Of course, this may reflect that fat that pregnant women don't generally eat much raw cotton.

They do eat corn and beans.

 

 

"The increase in their opportunity for profits and economic power was not invisible to them."

Nor to their opponents.

So?

So the excuse that they were "forced" somehow is bogus. They manipulated the approval process for their economic benefit, at the cost of imposing serious risks both known and unknown on everything and everyone else.

 

 

 

With regards to Bt toxins, they appear to be less harmful when being expressed in tissue rather than simply being sprayed (which can also be done). The latter of course provides more sources of exposure. The general consensus in the literature appears to be that based on existing studies the effects are overall less harmful than the often unrestrained spraying with pesticides.

The appearance of less harm is not derived from actual studies, which have not been done. It is derived from a systematic overlooking of obviously worrisome circumstances, by those who would have to pay for the necessary research.

 

The observation that the overlooking is systematic is supported by noting that some research has been done and published, all of it into matters supporting a conclusion of overall benefit - such as the potential reduction in mycotoxin ingestion from eating corn free of earwom damage.

 

Bt as used up until now has been one of the safest, most benign pesticides available, but it is expensive (different pests require different versions, etc) and therefore seldom sprayed without restraint or even used topically at all in industrial agriculture. Its effectiveness has been protected quite well over the years - occasional spot resistance from marginal overuse has been dealt with - and it is one of the more valuable families of pesticide we have; critical, even, to any prospect of "organic" agriculture. So its destruction by irresponsible genetic engineering deployments is a serious harm, currently in progress.

 

 

 

Most studies that have shown effects e.g. on mice in limited studies tend not to replicate their findings in larger or meta-analyses.

There have been few, if any (not sure what you are referring to) larger studies replicating the smaller worrisome ones. The proponents of GMOs as currently being deployed generally content themselves with noting the deficiencies in the smaller public studies, and referring to the lack of bad news from the small minority of private corporate studies that have been made public. That is what is referred to on this forum as "scientific evidence" of safety.

 

Which brings us to this entirely typical example of the kind of reasoning being deployed in support of these GMO deployments - read and weep:

"The fact that untill forced they did nothing to make sure their engineerred code did not escape is worth noting"

Yes, it indicates that they were happy to live in a world where these things were "free" in the world.

So they must have known that these things were safe.

 

Expert scientists, the best and brightest in their fields, have over the years filled their own world, their pregnant wives, their children's environment, and the surrounding landscape of birds and butterflies and flowers and trees and cute little squirrels, with nuclear fallout, tetraethyl lead aerosols, trans fats, DDT, asbestos, various teratogenic and carcinogenic "consumer" products, high altitude ozone destroyers, low altitude ozone, biologically active heavy metal compounds, napalm and nerve gas constituents, estrogen and other hormone mimics, and the waste products of manufacturing all this stuff. That's without even mentioning cigarettes, fertilizer, weedkiller, and other stuff their children could maybe be shielded from.

 

And that was mostly stuff they knew all about. Their prudence and foresight into matters they know nothing about is even less reliable for public safety.

Edited by overtone
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"So the excuse that they were "forced" somehow is bogus."

"The fact that untill forced they did nothing to make sure their engineerred code did not escape is worth noting"

 

nuclear fallout,

napalm and nerve gas constituents

Nope, not the scientists- that was the military.

 

"tetraethyl lead aerosols"

Anyone who aerosolised TEL is likely to be dead.

"asbestos"

Seriously? the stuff was used by the Romans, yout you are trying to blame science for it?

 

"various teratogenic and carcinogenic "consumer" products"

Which ones?

Do you mean beer?

 

"That's without even mentioning cigarettes,"

Good, unless you can show that they were a product of science.

 

"That's without even mentioning ..., fertilizer,"

Now you are pretty close to literally talking S**t

 

And so on.

 

Of course the real issue with nearly all of the things you mentioned is that they were introduced before testing became the norm.

You may have missed this, but things are now tested quite extensively.

So, unlike DDT (roe example) the scientists have done the tests and they are now making an informed choice to live in the same world as GMO.

Edited by John Cuthber
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The appearance of less harm is not derived from actual studies, which have not been done. It is derived from a systematic overlooking of obviously worrisome circumstances, by those who would have to pay for the necessary research.

 

This is an interesting statement, considering that there are quite a few researchers out there that try to do proper risk evaluation. What the current literature shows is that Bt exposure by spraying are generally minimal, the major worry being allergenic responses (see e.g. Berstein et al env health persp 1999). Since then studies have been ongoing looking into health as well as environmental aspects.

 

As I mentioned, effects that have been found were often subject to methodological errors or were not reproducible. As a result, a few papers (most recently by Seralini et al. on herbicide resistant GMO crop) were retracted. Not only are those studies no ignored, but in contrast, they are under high exposure (and related scrutiny).

 

In contrast to that, based on what I have read, the potential allergenic responses to spray exposure were fairly convincing and reproducible (including a few human studies, which is quite remarkable) whereas the same was not found in GMOs. Though to be fair, there are still more studies underway and a few initial results could reveal something interesting should they be validated this time. In any case I fail to see how one can claim that there are no studies available.

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In any case I fail to see how one can claim that there are no studies available.

My claims were 1) that there were few, if any, large scale replications of the small scale worrisome studies in mice you unspecifically mentioned. Counterevidence would be the posting of a few such studies.

 

2) That in general the specific new hazards of GMO Bt deployment (ingestion, wider demographic exposure, resistance breeding, environmental spread, etc) have not been studied, so that any claim of less hazard than the quite minimal ones associated (and studied) with spraying was not based on research performed.

 

You support that by providing what appear to be representative examples of the research done, which are almost entirely on things like allergic reactions to spray exposure, and do not include studies of - say - intestinal flora in children with and without Bt engineered crops in their diet.

 

 

 

Not only are those studies no ignored, but in contrast, they are under high exposure (and related scrutiny).

Exactly as I pointed out - "The proponents of GMOs as currently being deployed generally content themselves with noting the deficiencies in the smaller public studies, and referring to the lack of bad news from the small minority of private corporate studies that have been made public." What is missing is the larger scale rigorous studies of those worrisome symptoms, studies that would satisfy the scrutinizers who find the smaller studies unpersuasive. We see scrutiny, criticism, but a dearth of replication or followup. And from this gap, safety is inferred. That is a dangerous situation.

 

Never mind the obvious and incoming destruction of Bt's effectiveness, which will impose the risks of other, less benign pesticides and other, more expensive "organic" practices.

- - -

 

 

"So the excuse that they were "forced" somehow is bogus."

"The fact that untill forced they did nothing to make sure their engineered code did not escape is worth noting"

There's no contradiction there. They arranged to be forced to add otherwise unpopular and risky but profitable terminator code, as a means escaping a costly curb or even outright ban on what was obviously an unstudied and hazardous package of GMOs. Clever win - for them.

 

 

 

Nope, not the scientists- that was the military.

LOL. You are joking, I hope?

What's next? It's not the scientists, it's the corporations?

 

"tetraethyl lead aerosols"

Anyone who aerosolised TEL is likely to be dead.

Deliberately volatilized lead compounds from the burning of tetraethyl lead were kicked out into the air from every tailpipe in every car in the US for decades. And the scientists working for Standard Oil and Chevron and so forth who "set it free" drove those cars themselves.

 

"asbestos"

Seriously? the stuff was used by the Romans, yout you are trying to blame science for it?

It wasn't used by the Romans to insulate their children's schools, added to cigarette filters, packed into brake linings on cars and spread all over thestreets and countryside (there's that arena again), and so forth. Modern materials scientists working for big American corporations did that.

 

"various teratogenic and carcinogenic "consumer" products"

Which ones?

Do you mean beer?

Flame retardants in children's pajamas, furniture fabric treatments, detergents and household cleaners, various common garage and shop supplies, additives in food, food containers, and cooking gear - there's a very long list.

 

"That's without even mentioning cigarettes,"

Good, unless you can show that they were a product of science

You apparently have no idea how products are developed in this country.

 

 

Of course the real issue with nearly all of the things you mentioned is that they were introduced before testing became the norm.

The issue with all those things is that the scientists launching them into the environment had plenty of information and were or should have been well aware of the hazards - and did it anyway. The big oil scientists who arranged for biologically active lead compounds to be emitted from car exhausts everywhere had full and explicit warning of the effects of such things, and even direct first person accounts of the harms suffered by the early workers with tetraethyl lead itself, and did it anyway - not only did it, but fought attempts to curb it; not only fought attempts to curb it, but when they lost replaced it with MMT and MBTE and other toxic additives, which they likewise fought to keep after critics got them into court again. And so will behave any scientists working for a GMO producing agribusiness.

 

 

You may have missed this, but things are now tested quite extensively.

Some of them. GMOs are often (all the commercial ones, for example) too time consuming and expensive to test extensively - the range of possible harms is too large and complex, and the field is too new.

 

 

So, unlike DDT (roe example) the scientists have done the tests and they are now making an informed choice to live in the same world as GMO.

DDT was tested more thoroughly than any GMO now on the market has been, long before Silent Spring - indications of serious trouble with it were well known in the 1940s, but the corporate scientists working on delivery systems and new uses and so forth fought all restrictions on its employment, and continued to develop new compounds and delivery vehicles and so forth well into the late 1960s.

Edited by overtone
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"The proponents of GMOs as currently being deployed generally content themselves with noting the deficiencies in the smaller public studies, and referring to the lack of bad news from the small minority of private corporate studies that have been made public." What is missing is the larger scale rigorous studies of those worrisome symptoms, studies that would satisfy the scrutinizers who find the smaller studies unpersuasive. We see scrutiny, criticism, but a dearth of replication or followup. And from this gap, safety is inferred. That is a dangerous situation

 

You are misunderstanding something here. The small-scale studies are those that find risks. Upscaled ones or longer running tests tend not to find it anymore. Obviously there are no large-scale human population studies as, well these GMOs are not in widespread use for human consumption.

Both, small and large scale studies are being conducted on bacteria, rats (as mammalian model) and arthropods. The worrisome effects that were found associated with GMOs were mostly found in rat studies, but, to repeat myself, these effects were not reproducible in larger scale and subsequent studies. Note that statistically, effects are overestimated in small-scale studies rather than in large-scale ones.

 

Just to provide some recent lit:

Effects of Bt cotton on non-target pests (Sujii et al. Neotrop Entomol. 2013 Feb;42(1):102-11; Li et al. Insect Sci. 2013 May 27)

Effects of Bt rice on mice: Wang et al Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Dec;62:390-6. Schroder et al Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Mar;45(3):339-49

Effects of Bt crop on bacterial communities Singh et al. Microb Ecol. 2013 Nov;66(4):927-39

 

Are these studies sufficient to assess safety? Well, this is the big question, and as usual, more research is always beneficial. But in context one should note that many chemicals that we freely release into the environment and that enter our food chain are much less regulated. Realistically I would be much more worried about persistent chemicals such as halogenated compounds (that are already found accumulated in food and wildlife) for example. The latter is a real current issue that tends to get ignored. For some reasons people find that less scary.

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Saying there haven't been many studies done on GMOs is an outright falsehood. Here are around 200 different ones based on consumption alone. These were taken from a list of ~1700 studies on GMOs I found somewhere (I forget where)

Andrew C 2002 Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: the importance of an holistic, integrative approach Journal of Biotechnology

 

Bucchini L,Goldman LR 2002 Starlink corn: a risk analysis Environmental Health Perspectives

 

Chambers PA,Duggan PS,Heritage J,Forbes JM 2002 The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

 

Chassy BM 2002 Food Safety Evaluation of Crops Produced through Biotechnology Journal of the American College of Nutrition

 

Cromwell GL,Lindemann MD,Randolph JH,Parker GR,Coffey RD,Laurent KM,Armstrong CL,Mikel WB,Stanisiewski EP,Hartnell GF 2002 Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine Journal of Animal Science

 

Folmer JD,Grant RJ,Milton CT,Beck J 2002 Utilization of Bt corn residues by grazing beef steers and Bt corn silage and grain by growing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows Journal of Animal Science

 

Harlander SK 2002 Safety Assessments and Public Concern for Genetically Modified Food Products: The American View Toxicologic Pathology

 

Hefle SL,Taylor SL 2002 How much food is too much? Threshold doses for allergenic foods Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

 

Helm RM 2002 Biotechnology and food allergy Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

 

Heritage J 2002 Degradation of Transgenic DNA from Genetically Modified Soyabean and Maize in Human Intestinal Simulations British Journal of Nutrition

 

Hino A 2002 Safety Assessment and Public Concerns for Genetically Modified Food Products: The Japanese Experience Toxicologic Pathology

 

Kharazmi M,Hammes WP,Hertel C 2002 Construction of a Marker Rescue System in Bacillus subtilis for Detection of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Food Systematic and Applied Microbiology

 

Kimber I,Dearman RJ 2002 Approaches to Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Novel Proteins in Food from Genetically Modified Crops Toxicological Sciences

 

Malatesta M,Caporaloni C,Gavaudan S,Rocchi MBL,Serafini S,Tiberi C,Gazzanelli G 2002 Ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean Cell structure and function

 

Malatesta M,Caporaloni C,Rossi L,Battistelli S,Rocchi MBL,Tonucci F,Gazzanelli G 2002 Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic acinar cells from mice fed on genetically modified soybean Journal of anatomy

 

Martín-Orúe SM,O'Donnell AG,Ariño J,Netherwood T,Gilbert HJ,Mathers JC 2002 Degradation of Transgenic DNA from Genetically Modified Soya and Maize in Human Intestinal Simulations British Journal of Nutrition

 

Moseley BEB 2002 Safety Assessment and Public Concern for Genetically Modified Food Products: The European View Toxicologic Pathology

 

Murai A,Kobayashi T,Okada T,Okumura J 2002 Improvement of growth and nutritive value in chicks with non-genetically modified phytase product from Aspergillus niger British Poultry Science

 

Nair RS,Fuchs RL,Schuette SA 2002 Current Methods for Assessing Safety of Genetically Modified Crops as Exemplified by Data on Roundup Ready 1 Soybeans Toxicologic Pathology

 

Okunuki H,Teshima R,Shigeta T,Sakushima J-i,Akiyama H,Goda Y,Toyoda M,Sawada J-i 2002 Increased digestibility of two products in genetically modified food (CP4-EPSPS and Cry1Ab) after preheating Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan

 

Pastorello EA,Pravettoni V,Calamari AM,Banfi E,Robino AM 2002 New plant-origin food allergens Allergy

 

Poulsen LK 2002 Prediction of allergenicity of gene-modified foods by serum-based testing Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

 

Privalle LS 2002 Phosphomannose isomerase, a novel plant selection system: potential allergenicity assessment Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

 

Reuter T,Aulrich K,Berk A,Flachowsky G 2002 Investigations on genetically modified maize (Bt-maize) in pig nutrition: chemical composition and nutritional evaluation

 

Archiv für Tierernährung Taylor SL 2002 Protein allergenicity assessment of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology

 

Taylor SL,Hefle SL 2002 Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

 

Taylor SL,Hefle SL,Bindslev-Jensen C,Bock SA,Burks AW, Jr.,Christie L,Hill DJ,Host A,Hourihane JOb,Lack G,Metcalfe DD,Moneret-Vautrin DA,Vadas PA,Rance F,Skrypec DJ,Trautman TA,Yman IM,Zeiger RS 2002 Factors affecting the determination of threshold doses for allergenic foods: how much is too much? The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology

 

Teshima R,Watanabe T,Okunuki H,Isuzugawa K,Akiyama H,Onodera H,Imai T,Toyoda M,Sawada J-i 2002 Effect of subchronic feeding of genetically modified corn (CBH351) on immune system in BN rats and B10A mice Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan

 

Wang Z-h,Wang Y,Cui H-r,Xia Y-w,Altosaar I,Shu Q-y 2002 Toxicological evaluation of transgenic rice flour with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

 

Warner JO 2002 Genetically modified food and the pediatric allergist Pediatric allergy and immunology: official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

 

Zorzet A,Gustafsson M,Hammerling U 2002 Prediction of food protein allergenicity: a bioinformatic learning systems approach In silico biology

 

Bakshi A 2003 Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B

 

Bernstein JA,Bernstein IL,Bucchini L,Goldman LR,Hamilton RG,Lehrer S,Rubin C,Sampson HA 2003 Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods Environmental Health Perspectives

 

Brake J,Faust MA,Stein J 2003 Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens Poultry Science

 

Chang HS,Kim NH,Park MJ,Lim SK,Kim SC,Kim JY,Kim JA,Oh HY,Lee CH,Huh K,Jeong TC,Nam DH 2003 The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase of glyphosate-tolerant soybean expressed in Escherichia coli shows no severe allergenicity Molecules and cells

 

Chen Z-L,Gu H,Li Y,Su Y,Wu P,Jiang Z,Ming X,Tian J,Pan N,Qu L-J 2003 Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato Toxicology

 

Chowdhury EH,Kuribara H,Hino A,Sultana P,Mikami O,Shimada N,Guruge KS,Saito M,Nakajima Y 2003 Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11 Journal of Animal Science

 

Chowdhury EH,Mikami O,Nakajima Y,Hino A,Kuribara H,Suga K,Hanazumi M,Yomemochi C 2003 Detection of genetically modified maize DNA fragments in the intestinal contents of pigs fed StarLink CBH351 Veterinary and Human Toxicology

 

Donkin SS,Velez JC,Totten AK,Stanisiewski EP,Hartnell GF 2003 Effects of Feeding Silage and Grain from Glyphosate-Tolerant or Insect-Protected Corn Hybrids on Feed Intake, Ruminal Digestion, and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle Journal of Dairy Science

 

Duggan PS,Chambers PA,Heritage J,Forbes JM 2003 Fate of Genetically Modified Maize DNA in the Oral Cavity and Rumen of Sheep British Journal of Nutrition

 

Forsman A,Ushameckis D,Bindra A,Yun Z,Blomberg J 2003 Uptake of amplifiable fragments of retrotransposon DNA from the human alimentary tract Molecular Genetics and Genomics

 

Germolec DR,Kimber I,Goldman L,Selgrade M 2003 Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports Environmental Health Perspectives

 

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Singh AK,Singh BP,Prasad GBKS,Gaur SN,Arora N 2008 Safety Assessment of Bacterial Choline Oxidase Protein Introduced in Transgenic Crops for Tolerance against Abiotic Stress J. Agric. Food Chem.

 

Trabalza-Marinucci M,Brandi G,Rondini C,Avellini L,Giammarini C,Costarelli S,Acuti G,Orlandi C,Filippini G,Chiaradia E,Malatesta M,Crotti S,Antonini C,Amagliani G,Manuali E,Mastrogiacomo AR,Moscati L,Naceur Haouet M,Gaiti A,Magnani M 2008 A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep Livestock Science

 

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Domon E,Takagi H,Hirose S,Sugita K,Kasahara S,Ebinuma H,Takaiwa F 2009 26-Week Oral Safety Study in Macaques for Transgenic Rice Containing Major Human T-Cell Epitope Peptides from Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergens Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

 

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Haryu Y,Taguchi Y,Itakura E,Mikami O,Miura K,Saeki T,Nakajima Y 2009 Longterm Biosafety Assessment of A Genetically Modified (GM) Plant: The Genetically Modified (GM) Insect-Resistant Bt11 Corn Does Not Affect the Performance of Multi-Generations or Life Span of Mice The Open Plant Science Journal

 

He XY,Tang MZ,Luo YB,Li X,Cao SS,Yu JJ,Delaney B,Huang KL 2009 A 90-day toxicology study of transgenic lysine-rich maize grain (Y642) in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Herouet-Guicheney C,Rouquié D,Freyssinet M,Currier T,Martone A,Zhou J,Bates EEM,Ferullo J-M,Hendrickx K,Rouan D 2009 Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

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Juberg DR,Herman RA,Thomas J,Brooks KJ,Delaney B 2009 Acute and repeated dose (28 day) mouse oral toxicology studies with Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 Bt proteins used in coleopteran resistant DAS-59122-7 corn Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

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Mohanta RK,Singhal KK,Tyagi AK,Rajput YS,Prasad S 2009 Nutritional evaluation of transgenic cottonseed in the ration of lactating dairy cows Tropical Animal Health and Production

 

Parrot W,Chassy B 2009 Is This Study Believable? Examples from Animal Studies with GM Foods http://agribiotech.info/

 

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Séralini G-E,de Vendômois JS,Cellier D,Sultan C,Buiatti M,Gallagher L,Antoniou M,Dronamraju KR 2009 How Subchronic and Chronic Health Effects can be Neglected for GMOs, Pesticides or Chemicals International Journal of Biological Sciences

 

Sissener NH,Martin SAM,Cash P,Hevrøy EM,Sanden M,Hemre G-I 2009 Proteomic Profiling of Liver from Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Genetically Modified Soy Compared to the Near-Isogenic non-GM Line Marine Biotechnology

 

Stein HH,Rice DW,Smith BL,Hinds MA,Sauber TE,Pedersen C,Wulf DM,Peters DN 2009 Evaluation of corn grain with the genetically modified input trait DAS-59122-7 fed to growing-finishing pigs Journal of Animal Science

 

Thomas K,MacIntosh S,Bannon G,Herouet-Guicheney C,Holsapple M,Ladics G,McClain S,Vieths S,Woolhiser M,Privalle L 2009 Scientific advancement of novel protein allergenicity evaluation: An overview of work from the HESI Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee (2000-2008) Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Xu W,Cao S,He X,Luo Y,Guo X,Yuan Y,Huang K 2009 Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Ahuja V,Quatchadze M,Ahuja V,Stelter D,Albrecht A,Stahlmann R 2010 Evaluation of biotechnology-derived novel proteins for the risk of food-allergic potential: advances in the development of animal models and future challenges Archives of Toxicology

 

Battistelli S,Citterio B,Baldelli B,Parlani C,Malatesta M 2010 Histochemical and morpho­metrical study of mouse intestine epithelium after a long term diet containing genetically modified soybean European Journal of Histochemistry

 

Belanche A,Erroa IR,Balcells J,Calleja L 2010 Use of quantitative real‐time PCR to assess the in vitro survival of specific DNA gene sequences of rumen microbes under simulated abomasal conditions Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

 

Bolt HM,Hengstler JG 2010 Testing of genetically modified novel proteins for allergenicity in food and feed: a toxicological and regulatory challenge Archives of Toxicology

 

Cao S,He X,Xu W,Ran W,Liang L,Luo Y,Yuan Y,Zhang N,Zhou X,Huang K 2010 Safety assessment of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice according to the national standards of PR China for a new food resource Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

Daleprane JB,Chagas MA,Vellarde GC,Ramos CF,Boaventura GT 2010 The Impact of Non- and Genetically Modified Soybean Diets in Aorta Wall Remodeling Journal of Food Science

 

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Efsa 2010 Scientific Opinion on the assessment of allergenicity of GM plants and microorganisms and derived food and feed

 

Guimaraes V,Drumare M-F,Lereclus D,Gohar M,Lamourette P,Nevers M-C,Vaisanen-Tunkelrott M-L,Bernard H,Guillon B,Créminon C,Wal J-M,Adel-Patient K 2010 In vitro digestion of Cry1Ab proteins and analysis of the impact on their immunoreactivity Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

 

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Huber M,van de Vijver LPL,Parmentier H,Savelkoul H,Coulier L,Wopereis S,Verheij E,van der Greef J,Nierop D,Hoogenboom RAP 2010 Effects of organically and conventionally produced feed on biomarkers of health in a chicken model British Journal of Nutrition

 

Kim DK,Lillehoj HS,Lee SH,Jang SI,Bravo D 2010 High-throughput gene expression analysis of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes after oral feeding of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or Capsicum oleoresin Poultry Science

 

Krzyżowska M,Wincenciak M,Winnicka A,Baranowski A,Jaszczak K,Zimny J,Niemiałtowski M 2010 The effect of multigenerational diet containing genetically modified triticale on immune system in mice Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

 

Ladics GS,Knippels LMJ,Penninks AH,Bannon GA,Goodman RE,Herouet-Guicheney C 2010 Review of animal models designed to predict the potential allergenicity of novel proteins in genetically modified crops Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Lin C-H,Sheu F,Lin H-T,Pan T-M 2010 Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Resistant Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

 

Mejia L,Jacobs CM,Utterback PL,Parsons CM,Rice D,Sanders C,Smith B,Iiams C,Sauber T 2010 Evaluation of the nutritional equivalency of soybean meal with the genetically modified trait DP-3O5423-1 when fed to laying hens Poultry Science

 

Nakajima O,Koyano S,Akiyama H,Sawada J-i,Teshima R 2010 Confirmation of a predicted lack of IgE binding to Cry3Bb1 from genetically modified (GM) crops Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

Paul V,Guertler P,Wiedemann S,Meyer HHD 2010 Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion Transgenic Research

 

Rapp D 2010 DNA extraction from bovine faeces: current status and future trends Journal of Applied Microbiology

 

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Sissener NH,Johannessen LE,Hevrøy EM,Wiik-Nielsen CR,Berdal KG,Nordgreen A,Hemre G-I 2010 Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio) as a Model for Investigating the Safety of GM Feed Ingredients (soya and Maize); Performance, Stress Response and Uptake of Dietary DNA Sequences British Journal of Nutrition

 

Steinke K,Guertler P,Paul V,Wiedemann S,Ettle T,Albrecht C,Meyer HHD,Spiekers H,Schwarz FJ 2010 Effects of long‐term feeding of genetically modified corn (event MON810) on the performance of lactating dairy cows Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

 

Taylor SL,Baumert JL 2010 Cross-Contamination of Foods and Implications for Food Allergic Patients Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

 

Tudisco R,Mastellone V,Cutrignelli MI,Lombardi P,Bovera F,Mirabella N,Piccolo G,Calabrò S,Avallone L,Infascelli F 2010 Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

 

Wilcks A,Jacobsen B 2010 Lack of detectable DNA uptake by transformation of selected recipients in mono-associated rats BMC Research Notes

 

Wu J,An Y,Yao J,Wang Y,Tang H 2010 An optimised sample preparation method for NMR-based faecal metabonomic analysis Analyst

 

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Adel-Patient K,Guimaraes VD,Paris A,Drumare M-F,Ah-Leung S,Lamourette P,Nevers M-C,Canlet C,Molina J,Bernard H,Créminon C,Wal J-M 2011 Immunological and Metabolomic Impacts of Administration of Cry1Ab Protein and MON 810 Maize in Mouse Immunological and Metabolomic Impacts of Administration of Cry1Ab Protein and MON 810 Maize in Mouse

 

Altenbach SB,Allen PV 2011 Transformation of the US bread wheat ‘Butte 86’ and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes GM crops

 

Brouk MJ,Cvetkovic B,Rice DW,Smith BL,Hinds MA,Owens FN,Iiams C,Sauber TE 2011 Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from genetically modified corn containing event DAS-59122-7 compared to a nontransgenic, near-isogenic control Journal of Dairy Science

 

Cao S,Xu W,Luo Y,He X,Yuan Y,Ran W,Liang L,Huang K 2011 Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats Molecular BioSystems

 

Delgado JE,Wolt JD 2011 Fumonisin B1 toxicity in grower-finisher pigs: a comparative analysis of genetically engineered Bt corn and non-Bt corn by using quantitative dietary exposure assessment modeling International journal of environmental research and public health

 

Domingo JL,Giné Bordonaba J 2011 A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants Environment International

 

Fermín G,Keith RC,Suzuki JY,Ferreira SA,Gaskill DA,Pitz KY,Manshardt RM,Gonsalves D,Tripathi S 2011 Allergenicity Assessment of the Papaya Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Expressed in Transgenic Rainbow Papaya Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

 

Goodman RE,Tetteh AO 2011 Suggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

 

Gruber H,Paul V,Guertler P,Spiekers H,Tichopad A,Meyer HHD,Müller M 2011 Fate of Cry1Ab Protein in Agricultural Systems under Slurry Management of Cows Fed Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: A Quantitative Assessment J. Agric. Food Chem.

 

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Herman RA,Dunville CM,Juberg DR,Fletcher DW,Cromwell GL 2011 Performance of broiler chickens fed event DAS-40278-9 maize containing the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 protein Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP

 

Herman RA,Dunville CM,Juberg DR,Fletcher DW,Cromwell GL 2011 Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal GM crops

 

Herman RA,Ladics GS 2011 Endogenous allergen upregulation: Transgenic vs. traditionally bred crops Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Krishnan HB,Jang S,Kim W-S,Kerley MS,Oliver MJ,Trick HN 2011 Biofortification of Soybean Meal: Immunological Properties of the 27 kDa γ-Zein J. Agric. Food Chem.

 

Ladics GS,Cressman RF,Herouet-Guicheney C,Herman RA,Privalle L,Song P,Ward JM,McClain S 2011 Bioinformatics and the allergy assessment of agricultural biotechnology products: Industry practices and recommendations Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

McNaughton J,Roberts M,Rice D,Smith B,Hinds M,Delaney B,Iiams C,Sauber T 2011 Nutritional equivalency evaluation of transgenic maize grain from event DP-O9814O-6 and transgenic soybeans containing event DP-356O43-5: laying hen performance and egg quality measures Poultry Science

 

McNaughton J,Roberts M,Rice D,Smith B,Hinds M,Delaney B,Iiams C,Sauber T 2011 Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed transgenic maize grain containing event DP-O9814O-6 and processed fractions from transgenic soybeans containing event DP-356O43-5 Poultry Science

 

Randhawa GJ,Singh M,Grover M 2011 Bioinformatic analysis for allergenicity assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins expressed in insect-resistant food crops Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

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Sharma P,Singh AK,Singh BP,Gaur SN,Arora N 2011 Allergenicity Assessment of Osmotin, a Pathogenesis-Related Protein, Used for Transgenic Crops Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

 

Sissener NH,Hemre G-I,Lall SP,Sagstad A,Petersen K,Williams J,Rohloff J,Sanden M 2011 Are Apparent Negative Effects of Feeding GM MON810 Maize to Atlantic Salmon, Salmo Salar, Caused by Confounding Factors? British Journal of Nutrition

 

Tripathi MK,Mondal D,Somvanshi R,Karim SA 2011 Haematology, blood biochemistry and tissue histopathology of lambs maintained on diets containing an insect controlling protein (Cry1Ac) in Bt-cottonseed Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

 

Verma AK,Misra A,Subash S,Das M,Dwivedi PD 2011 Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology

 

Walsh MC,Buzoianu SG,Gardiner GE,Rea MC,Gelencsér E,Jánosi A,Epstein MM,Ross RP,Lawlor PG 2011 Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs PLoS ONE

 

Xu W,Li L,Lu J,Luo Y,Shang Y,Huang K 2011 Analysis of Caecal Microbiota in Rats Fed with Genetically Modified Rice by Real‐Time Quantitative PCR Journal of Food Science

 

Yuan Y,Xu W,Luo Y,Liu H,Lu J,Su C,Huang K 2011 Effects of genetically modified T2A‐1 rice on faecal microflora of rats during 90 day supplementation Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

 

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Zhou XH,Dong Y,Xiao X,Wang Y,Xu Y,Xu B,Shi WD,Zhang Y,Zhu LJ,Liu QQ 2011 A 90-day toxicology study of high-amylose transgenic rice grain in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

 

Zhu L,Gu M,Meng X,Cheung SCK,Yu H,Huang J,Sun Y,Shi Y,Liu Q 2011 High‐amylose rice improves indices of animal health in normal and diabetic rats Plant Biotechnology Journal

 

Buzoianu SG,Walsh MC,Rea MC,Cassidy JP,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to ∼40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

 

Buzoianu SG,Walsh MC,Rea MC,Cassidy JP,Ryan TP,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 Trans-generational effects of feeding genetically modified maize to nulliparous sows and offspring on offspring growth and health Journal of Animal Science

 

Buzoianu SG,Walsh MC,Rea MC,O'Donovan O,Gelencsér E,Ujhelyi G,Szabó E,Nagy A,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material PLoS ONE

 

Buzoianu SG,Walsh MC,Rea MC,O'Sullivan O,Cotter PD,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the intestinal microbiota of weanling pigs fed genetically modified MON810 maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt maize) for 31 days Applied and Environmental Microbiology

 

Buzoianu SG,Walsh MC,Rea MC,O'Sullivan O,Crispie F,Cotter PD,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 The effect of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on intestinal microbiota PLoS ONE

 

Cao S,He X,Xu W,Luo Y,Yuan Y,Liu P,Cao B,Shi H,Huang K 2012 Safety assessment of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice T1c-19 in Sprague-Dawley rats from metabonomics and bacterial profile perspectives IUBMB Life

 

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Harper B,McClain S,Ganko EW 2012 Interpreting the biological relevance of bioinformatic analyses with T-DNA sequence for protein allergenicity Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

 

Liu P,He X,Chen D,Luo Y,Cao S,Song H,Liu T,Huang K,Xu W 2012 A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

 

Madduri KM,Schafer BW,Hasler JM,Lin G,Foster ML,Embrey SK,Sastry-Dent L,Song P,Larrinua IM,Gachotte DJ,Herman RA 2012 Preliminary safety assessment of a membrane-bound delta 9 desaturase candidate protein for transgenic oilseed crops Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Mishra A,Gaur SN,Singh BP,Arora N 2012 In silico assessment of the potential allergenicity of transgenes used for the development of GM food crops Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

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Podevin N,du Jardin P 2012 Possible consequences of the overlap between the CaMV 35S promoter regions in plant transformation vectors used and the viral gene VI in transgenic plants GM crops & food

 

Qi X,He X,Luo Y,Li S,Zou S,Cao S,Tang M,Delaney B,Xu W,Huang K 2012 Subchronic feeding study of stacked trait genetically-modified soybean (3Ø5423 × 40-3-2) in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

 

Rizzi A,Raddadi N,Sorlini C,Nordgrd L,Nielsen KM,Daffonchio D 2012 The Stability and Degradation of Dietary DNA in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mammals: Implications for Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Biosafety of GMOs Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

 

Séralini G-E,Clair E,Mesnage R,Gress S,Defarge N,Malatesta M,Hennequin D,de Vendômois JS 2012 Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Snell C,Bernheim A,Bergé J-B,Kuntz M,Pascal G,Paris A,Ricroch AE 2012 Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Stagg NJ,Thomas J,Herman RA,Juberg DR 2012 Acute and 28-day repeated dose toxicology studies in mice with aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD-1) protein expressed in 2,4-D tolerant DAS-40278-9 maize Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP

 

Stevenson SE,Woods CA,Hong B,Kong X,Thelen JJ,Ladics GS 2012 Environmental Effects on Allergen Levels in Commercially Grown Non-Genetically Modified Soybeans: Assessing Variation Across North America Frontiers in Plant Science

 

Tang M,Xie T,Cheng W,Qian L,Yang S,Yang D,Cui W,Li K 2012 A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats Transgenic Research

 

Udenigwe CC,Aluko RE 2012 Food Protein-Derived Bioactive Peptides: Production, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits Journal of Food Science

 

Venâncio VP,Silva JPL,Almeida AA,Brigagão MRPL,Azevedo L 2012 Conventional (MG-BR46 Conquista) and transgenic (BRS Valiosa RR) soybeans have no mutagenic effects and may protect against induced-DNA damage in vivo Nutrition and cancer

 

Walsh MC,Buzoianu SG,Gardiner GE,Rea MC,Ross RP,Cassidy JP,Lawlor PG 2012 Effects of short-term feeding of Bt MON810 maize on growth performance, organ morphology and function in pigs The British journal of nutrition

 

Walsh MC,Buzoianu SG,Rea MC,O'Donovan O,Gelencsér E,Ujhelyi G,Ross RP,Gardiner GE,Lawlor PG 2012 Effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on peripheral immune response and digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin PLoS ONE

 

Weber N,Halpin C,Hannah LC,Jez JM,Kough J,Parrott W 2012 Crop Genome Plasticity and Its Relevance to Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Breeding Stacks Plant Physiology

 

Young GJ,Zhang S,Mirsky HP,Cressman RF,Cong B,Ladics GS,Zhong CX 2012 Assessment of possible allergenicity of hypothetical ORFs in common food crops using current bioinformatic guidelines and its implications for the safety assessment of GM crops Food and Chemical Toxicology

 

Zhang L,Hou D,Chen X,Li D,Zhu L,Zhang Y,Li J,Bian Z,Liang X,Cai X,Yin Y,Wang C,Zhang T,Zhu D,Zhang D,Xu J,Chen Q,Ba Y,Liu J,Wang Q,Chen J,Wang J,Wang M,Zhang Q,Zhang J,Zen K,Zhang C-Y 2012 Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA Cell Research

 

Zhang Y,Wiggins BE,Lawrence C,Petrick J,Ivashuta S,Heck G 2012 Analysis of plant-derived miRNAs in animal small RNA datasets BMC Genomics

 

Zhou XH,Dong Y,Wang Y,Xiao X,Xu Y,Xu B,Li X,Wei XS,Liu QQ 2012 A three generation study with high-lysine transgenic rice in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

 

Zhu Y,He X,Luo Y,Zou S,Zhou X,Huang K,Xu W 2012 A 90-day feeding study of glyphosate-tolerant maize with the G2-aroA gene in Sprague-Dawley rats Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

 

Zurzolo GA,Mathai ML,Koplin JJ,Allen KJ 2012 Hidden allergens in foods and implications for labelling and clinical care of food allergic patients Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

 

Petrick JS,Brower-Toland B,Jackson AL,Kier LD 2013 Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: A scientific review Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology

Edited by Ringer
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You are misunderstanding something here.
No, you need to simply read my posts. They are largely simple, declarative sentences

 

The small-scale studies are those that find risks. Upscaled ones or longer running tests tend not to find it anymore.
My claim was that there were few, if any, large scale studies that replicated the small scale ones. If that claim holds - and no one has posted even one counterexample - the fact that different research into different circumstances has different results may be true but hardly matters.

 

 

 

The worrisome effects that were found associated with GMOs were mostly found in rat studies, but, to repeat myself, these effects were not reproducible in larger scale and subsequent studies
My claim is that few if any of the large scale studies replicate the smaller worrisome ones. The European peer-reviewed and respectably published study of 200 rats, divvied up into combinations (including controls) fed for two years on various regimens of glyphosate resistant rat chow, was recently withdrawn under hard public pressure for vague reasons, most of them handwaving at the idea that too few rats were involved for conclusive significance - but the obvious followup (one that would have made such politically suspect withdrawal unnecessary for their purpose), replication using more rats, remains unaccomplished. People are simply referring to Monsanto's "large scale" study that was the basis for EU approval of its seeds - but that one was only a 90 day feeding trial of a couple of groups.

 

 

 

Obviously there are no large-scale human population studies as, well these GMOs are not in widespread use for human consumption.
No multicellular GMO has been thoroughly checked out with large scale human population studies. That gap in the knowledge is one major source of risk for most of them.

 

 


 

Are these studies sufficient to assess safety? Well, this is the big question, and as usual, more research is always beneficial.

Please. The answer to the big question is no, of course not. More research is not just "beneficial" but absolutely necessary for any kind of responsible decisionmaking, and that prior - not subsequent - to mass deployment and conversion of continental agriculture.

 

Yes, the issues are multifacted and complex, the necessary research time consuming and expensive and very inconvenient - but if it isn't done, the risks are run. Don't deny or downplay the risks because the research necessary to settle things is too costly in time, money, or labor.

 

 

 

But in context one should note that many chemicals that we freely release into the environment and that enter our food chain are much less regulated. Realistically I would be much more worried about persistent chemicals such as halogenated compounds (that are already found accumulated in food and wildlife) for example. The latter is a real current issue that tends to get ignored. For some reasons people find that less scary.
In the first place, all comparisons with chemical pollutants and such badly mislead. As with the supposed continuation of ordinary breeding efforts, it overlooks exactly the major costs and risks of this new capability and arena of innovation.

 

In the second, that is a bit angering. Do I really need to gather the arguments and evidence and so forth to recall to anyone's mind here the kinds of responses received by all the "people" - many, many, loud and obvious people - over all these years who have been worried about such stuff, promoting "organic" food for example? IIRC they were called "fearmongers" as well, mocked because they were presumably scared, found amusingly ignorant compared with the scientific types that were patiently explaining to them (without the slightest tendency to namecalling, ad hominem argument, mockery of presumed emotional foolishness, etc, of course) that there was no "scientific" evidence of any harm from such pollutants.

 

It's the same damnfool "argument", over and over, when the big money buckets don't want the spigot shut off.

 

But to return: of course informed people are more worried about genetic engineering mishaps than background rises in toxin concentrations - they are potentially more dangerous, more costly, even more difficult to handle, and so forth. Even the simpler and more directly approachable risks can be startlingly disruptive in potential - pick one: if it does turn out that the effect on human gut flora of the digestion products and genetic swapouts created after eating food from glyphosate-resistant crops is seriously bad,

 

a source of risk not noticed until several years after deployment, the necessry advance research having been somehow omitted from the program, and just now begun to be investigated

 

then what is the US going to do?

 

 

 

Saying there haven't been many studies done on GMOs is an outright falsehood.
Good thing nobody said that, then.
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That's going to be ignored. I don't have the time, patience, or computer capability to slog through youtube videos linked by someone who thinks scientists were not involved in producing cigarettes.

Yeah, right.

From wiki

"The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times"

 

The scientists may have been involved in tweaking the design, but the fundamental idea of deliberately breathing the smoke from burning plant matter

1) is the cause of the health problems and

2) was there long before any scientists.

 

So, what you have effectively said is "I'm not going to listen to evidence from someone who doesn't agree with me."

That's soapboxing.

.

 

 

Saying there haven't been many studies done on GMOs is an outright falsehood.

 

Good thing nobody said that, then.

And yes, as noted repeatedly now and central to this matter -> there have been no carefully controlled trials <-. Remember that when the urge to demand evidence from such trials strikes you as you read my posts.

Close enough for most people I think

Edited by John Cuthber
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