Mr Skeptic Posted February 2, 2011 Share Posted February 2, 2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosni_Mubarak#President_of_Egypt Following the assassination of President Sadat in 1981 by army officers opposed to his signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Hosni Mubarak became the President of the Arabic Republic of Egypt, and the Chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP). He is also the longest serving President of Egypt, his term now counting 29 years.... President Mubarak has been re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, 1999. The referendum in itself and its results are of questionable validity[who?]. No one could run against the President due to a restriction in the Egyptian constitution in which the People's Assembly played the main role in electing the President of the Republic. After increased domestic and international pressure for democratic reform in Egypt, Mubarak asked the largely rubber stamp parliament on February 26, 2005 to amend the constitution to allow multi-candidate presidential elections by September 2005. Previously[when?], Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by parliament, then confirmed without opposition in a referendum. The September 2005 ballot was therefore a multiple candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions, and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. The official state media, including the three government newspapers and state television also express views identical to the official line taken by Mubarak. In recent years however, there has been a steady growth in independent news outlets, especially independent newspapers which occasionally criticize the President and his family severely. Satellite channels beaming from Egypt such as the Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network for example, also exhibit relative openness as exhibited in their flagship program Al Qahira Al Yawm. In the last few years however, the cabinet headed by Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif has been somewhat successful in turning things around. According to the List of countries by Human Development Index Egypt ranks 111th out of 177 countries, and rates 0.702 on the index. On July 28, 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy, as he had been widely expected to do. The election which was scheduled for 7 September 2005 involved mass rigging activities, according to civil organizations that observed the elections. Reports have shown that Mubarak's party used government vehicles to take public employees to vote for him. Votes were bought for Mubarak in poor suburbs and rural areas. It was also reported that thousands of illegal votes were allowed for Mubarak from citizens who were not registered to vote. On 8 September 2005, Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the Al-Ghad party ("Tomorrow party"), contested the election results, and demanded a repeat of the election. In a move widely seen as political persecution, Nour was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years at hard labor on December 24, 2005. Mubarak has been "president" for almost 30 years now, and it seems the people are sick of him. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Egyptian_protests The 2011 Egyptian protests are an ongoing series of street demonstrations, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, rioting, and violent clashes that began in Egypt on 25 January 2011, a day selected by April 6 Youth Movement organisers to coincide with the National Police Day holiday. The protests began with tens of thousands marching in Cairo and a string of other cities in Egypt. While localised protests had been common in previous years, the 2011 protests have been the largest demonstrations seen in Egypt since the 1977 Bread Riots and unprecedented in scope, drawing participants from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds and faiths. The demonstrations and riots started in the weeks after the Tunisian Revolution, with many protesters carrying Tunisian flags as a symbol of their influence, It is part of the 2010–2011 Arab world protests that have included and followed Tunisia's revolution. Grievances for Egyptian protesters have focused on legal and political issues including police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections and free speech, and corruption, as well as economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages. The primary demand from protest organizers is the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, and a new government that represents the interests of the Egyptian people, and respects rights of freedom and justice. As of 29 January, at least 105 protester deaths had been reported, and those injured number 750 policemen and 1,500 protesters. The capital city of Cairo has been described as "a war zone," and the port city of Suez has been the scene of frequent violent clashes. The government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police or military did not enforce. The presence of Egypt's Central Security police, loyal to Mubarak, has been gradually replaced by largely restrained military troops. In the absence of police, there has been looting, and in response civilians have self-organized watch groups to protect key sites. International response to the protests has been mixed, though most have called for some sort of peaceful protests on both sides and moves toward reform. Mostly Western governments also expressed concern for the situation. Many governments have issued travel advisories and begun making attempts at evacuating their citizens from the country. Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation minister and former chief of Egypt's Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Opposition to the Mubarak regime has coalesced around Mohamed ElBaradei, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator for some form of transitional unity government. In response to mounting pressure Mubarak announced he would not seek re-election in September. Definitely something to keep an eye on in the following weeks. Link to comment Share on other sites More sharing options...
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