How do gluons work?

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Yea, but this conversion requires an axiomatic method for the conversion.

We do not have that.

You cannot just use an absract term energy to create photons.

They must be sourced.

Why? Could anything else happen with that energy? The second law of thermodynamics is pretty harsh.

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Why? Could anything else happen with that energy? The second law of thermodynamics is pretty harsh.

How is it science to claim the abstraction of energy converts into what you need for your theory?

The photons need to be sourced.

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It can't become anything else in sufficient quantity. Its an effect of the second law of thermodynamics. Any conversion away from potential energy is going to eventually end up as heat (in case you doubted that the sun is hot), and hot things must radiate photons per Maxwell's equations. Again, is there any other possibility?

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Yea, but this conversion requires an axiomatic method for the conversion.

Axiomatic method? Mass-energy is not axiomatic, it is a conclusion based, ultimately, on observation, and experimentally confirmed.

Objections to established science belong in speculations.

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No. Excitation and de-excitation give a discrete spectrum. These e.g. give you lines of emission and absorption on top of the continuous blackbody spectrum of a star.

(Thanks for the clarification.)

At room temperature, thermal energies are of order 0.04 eV. In-so-far, as this is (significantly) less, than the excitation / ionization energies of even valence electrons, thermal 'jostling' might not have enough energy to excite / ionize atoms at STP. What does, however, supply the energy for BB radiation? The KE / PE of the atoms, "sloshing around" in the potential wells, of their lattice sites, in some solid crystal (say) ?? Is it accidental, that BB radiation, being (in net) directed outward, from any parcel of matter, acts as a "compressive force", pushing the outer, radiating layers, of that chunk of matter, back inwards, towards their 'mates in the middle' (at least a little like some sort of surface tension) ??

It seems to me, that (1) photon non-conservation (creation/annihilation) plays a special role in (2) wave function collapse (measurement). And, photon non-conservation seems associated, with (3) the "totality" of wave function collapse, in photons, when they localize in absorption. And, finally, this "destructive wave function collapse", of photons, in absorption, seems associated with (4) photons having zero rest mass (rest mass provides an "irreducible kernel" of substance to quantum 'particles' ?).

(Of course, this if for the atomic quantum scale. But, understanding these kinds of connections, at this scale, could help highlight the important physics, of corresponding processes, on the nuclear quantum scale.)

As granpa has said, you accelerate a free charge. Or, you can have some sort of transition: atomic, molecular or nuclear de-excitation. Or you can annihilate matter and antimatter.

The sun, being a plasma, has lots of charges bouncing around, undergoing accelerations when they scatter.

How can neutral atoms BB radiate, at STP (<E> = 0.04 eV) ? What is the QM description, of accelerative radiation ? And, if two charges, in a plasma, interacted (normally, an Entanglement process), and then emitted BB photons (particle creation, not described by the SWE ??), would that constitute a wave function collapse (Type 1, "quantum jump") process ?

Edited by Widdekind
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The solids that are the closest to blackbodies (high emissivities) are metals, which have quasi-free electrons in the conduction band that can collide.

Neutral gas atoms can temporarily have a dipole moment when interacting/scattering. Molecules can have a permanent dipole moment. AFAIK, a changing (rotating) dipole also generate EM radiation.

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It can't become anything else in sufficient quantity. Its an effect of the second law of thermodynamics. Any conversion away from potential energy is going to eventually end up as heat (in case you doubted that the sun is hot), and hot things must radiate photons per Maxwell's equations. Again, is there any other possibility?

Yea, this is hand waving.

Source all the photons.

Axiomatic method? Mass-energy is not axiomatic, it is a conclusion based, ultimately, on observation, and experimentally confirmed.

Objections to established science belong in speculations.

No, I just want all the photons sourced.

I would like to see an accounting.

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Yea, this is hand waving.

Source all the photons.

Stop putting your fingers in your ears, and tell me what other possibility there is. If you're arguing against the laws of physics, you should at least try to make your case, other than that you don't like the laws of physics.

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Stop putting your fingers in your ears, and tell me what other possibility there is. If you're arguing against the laws of physics, you should at least try to make your case, other than that you don't like the laws of physics.

What?

Was I wrong?

Source the photons. That is what I am looking for.

!

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