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Guest BlackJackal

A New Theory for the Origins of Life

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Evolution has neither of these. Mutations are not "organizing" mechanisms' date=' but disorganizing. They are commonly harmful, sometimes neutral, but never add useful information to the genetic code (at least as far as observed mutations are concerned). [/b']

 

OK. Since the thermodynamics and chemistry are a little out of my field, Ill stick to the genetics. My field :)

 

Firstly, mutations are commonly neutral, sometimes harmful, and occasionally beneficial.

Nachman, M. W. and S. L. Crowell, 2000. Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humans. Genetics 156(1): 297-304. - estimate around 3 deleterious mutations out of 175 per generation in humans, of which the beneficial mutations have a higher survival rate than those that are harmful.

 

Examples of beneficial mutations:

 

http://www.gate.net/~rwms/EvoHumBenMutations.html - lists a number of beneficial mutations in humans

 

http://www.gate.net/~rwms/EvoMutations.html - lists a number of beneficial mutations observed in nature

 

Boyden, Ann M., Junhao Mao, Joseph Belsky, Lyle Mitzner, Anita Farhi, Mary A. Mitnick, Dianqing Wu, Karl Insogna, and Richard P. Lifton, 2002. High bone density due to a mutation in LDL-receptor-related protein 5. New England Journal of Medicine 346: 1513-1521, May 16, 2002. - Results in increased bone strength with no observable negative effects.

 

Prijambada, I. D., S. Negoro, T. Yomo and I. Urabe, 1995. Emergence of nylon oligomer degradation enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO through experimental evolution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61(5): 2020-2022. - confer ability to bacteria to degrade nylon

 

 

And some more: http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CB/CB101.html

 

And even more: Peck, J. R. and A. Eyre-Walker, 1997. The muddle about mutations. Nature 387: 135-136.

 

And some more still: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/mutations.html, http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/mutation.htm,

 

And if you are still not convinced, here is a little more still: http://wiki.cotch.net/index.php/Most_mutations_are_harmful

 

 

And you studied evolutionary biology for how many years?

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Now everybody knows that aliens came down to earth in their big spaceship with our DNA and created us.

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