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Shock absorbing property of sponges

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Hi guys

For a case presentation in neurosurgery, I'm talking about the Jannetta procedure, in which, in patients with a neurovascular conflict between a cranial nerve and an offending vessel (mostly an artery compressing the nerve and pulsating against it), a sponge-like matter (Teflon, Merocel ...) is surgically inserted between the nerve and the vessel.

I'd like to briefly talk about how the sponge absorbs most of the pulsatile energy/impact of the vessel, preventing energetic transmission to the nerve. I can't seem to find, however, a physics model explaining this.

Does someone have a good explanation on how sponge-like matters absorb kinetic energy and prevent transmission of most of that energy past itself?

Thanks!

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