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Tenses for waive15

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Waive15

Subject + Predicate, I suppose is a mathematical definition for Simple Sentence. But I want to hear clear definition for Grammatical case(only for English, German and Russia - languages which are important to me) and Tense. That is why I am here. I will be glad if you can provide me with some.

There are some who consider language a scientific subject.
Certainly it can be very technical.

You might enjoy "The Cambridge Encylopedia of Language."
I believe you can get a pdf download for your E reader.

Tenses:

Some languages (Latin, German, ...) use changes to the endings of nouns to indicate different purposes.
English does not do this very much.

Most languages (German, French, Latin, Russian .. ) offer a much smaller set of changes to verbs than does English.
Although there are only three basic tenses, Past Present and Future, English has many variations on each.
These variations often confuse those learning English as a foreign language because the ideas behind them are not well explained.

(I learned a bit of Russian at school in 1960 ans was suprised that you do not have a present tense like our verb "to be")

Now this must be difficult because English uses a second auxiliary word to modify the meanings of both nouns and verbs.

For now I will give one example reason of why English has so many tenses for verbs.
Verbs are 'action' words.
Actions can be momentary (finished as soon as they happen or are started)

for example: John kicks the ball

Or they can be continuous or ongoing

for example: John is digging the garden.

With three tenses there are several possibilities.

John was digging the garden (past) but has now finished (present)

John was digging the garden (past) and is still digging the garden (present)

John is digging the garden (present) and will still be digging the garden at half past two. (future)

etc

There is more if this is helpful.

 

 

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Subject + Predicate, I suppose is a mathematical definition for Simple Sentence.

I would not say that this is a mathematical definition; it happens to use the + sign. 

The study of language (linguistics) is, or certainly should be, scientific. But that does mean that language is either mathematical or logical. It is not. The use and development of language is full of completely illogical, and even paradoxical, things. For example, Sturtevant's paradox: “Sound change is regular and causes irregularity; analogy is irregular and causes regularity.”

There are probably no universal rules that can be applied to any language; for every nearly-universal rule you will probably find exceptions in actual usage.

 

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Thank you, studiot, and thank you, Strange, for you replies .

I will tell you why I feel a little embarrassed:

- my spelling when I write to you comes mainly as a feature of Ubuntu, it is not my accomplishment;

- as I talk to you I almost go literally - I go word for word(my language word- english word)  I speak/use my language as a normal man(I don't thing at all, use it as a HABIT), but when I start to look closely at what I say, I see that I don't understand "my first foreign language" more than i understand English;

-  I first understood Recently the logic of Conditionals in English(there was an excellent web page. Until then i had read many pages on the theme) and THEN i understood Conditionals in "my language" and now i use "english logic" to speak Conditionally in "my language" but if I can i  avoid conditionals.

As a sign of gratitude I will mention

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1990)

If you haven't seen it already, you probably shall. Gary Oldman, Tim Roth, Shakespeare and something two-sided. I always keep this movie on my computer.

 

Thanks again and have a nice day.

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34 minutes ago, waive15 said:

-  I first understood Recently the logic of Conditionals in English(there was an excellent web page. Until then i had read many pages on the theme) and THEN i understood Conditionals in "my language" and now i use "english logic" to speak Conditionally in "my language" but if I can i  avoid conditionals.

Conditionals are difficult.

Do the easy stuff first.

On 12/3/2019 at 10:18 AM, studiot said:

There is more if this is helpful.

Conditionals are part of the 'more'.

Was the easy stuff helpful?

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Yes, sudiot,

It is so kind of you.

 

/Although I claim that I understood them, that is more like in general that  I understood them BUT in practice  they are still difficult for me to implement/

 

Thanks for reply, have a nice time.

 

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4 hours ago, studiot said:

Conditionals are difficult.

You should try Japanese conditionals!

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Hi Strange,

I finally broke through russian conditionals with a great help of a russian grammar from  year188?. I am so happy.

Also there it is clearly stated that in to-day Russian there is not existing PAST FORM OF THE VERB. And this is in connection why Conditionals in russian look illogical.

I have russian friends and even russians don't get it(although they speak flawless Russian).

 

I've seen Shogun several times. Lessons in Japanese in that film were very interesting for me. For me it sounds hard and i like hard sounding languages.

I like English because it is very simple(simplified), almost artificial. Even insults(foul language, even downloaded a dictionary) in English don't offend me.

If i ever approach Japanese it will be through English.

Thanks for reply

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1 hour ago, waive15 said:

If i ever approach Japanese it will be through English.

Not sure if that is the best approach. For pronunciation, it is very similar to Italian. But the grammar is completely unlike any European language. Verbs only have a present and past tense, but are conjugated in multiple other ways to indicate desire, probability, respect, voice, etc. But not for number or person. Adjectives conjugate like verbs. Apart from the ones that behave like nouns. And the word order is completely different: object-subject-verb.

1 hour ago, waive15 said:

I've seen Shogun several times. Lessons in Japanese in that film were very interesting for me. For me it sounds hard and i like hard sounding languages.

It depends. The language used by samurai and gangsters is tends to use short words, with simple conjugations and so can sound quite staccato. But the langue used in polite conversation uses more polysyllabic words with complex conjugations and sounds softer and more "lilting".

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Hi Strange,

Thanks for the interest. I have very limited abilities  - even Conditionals in "my language" are difficult for me. I dare not study Japanese.

I will tell you a story.

Some years ago I was desperate about that I cannot understand english logic in english phonetics and writing. And deserted english and went into turkish(grammars were in english and russian). Turkish is close/dear to me in different reasons. I heard that somehow very distantly it have something common with Japanese. I don't know if this is true but that was one of the reasons too. Turkish has excellent alphabet. That made it easy for me. So instead of learning Japanese which is not a spoon for my mouth i went to turkish. Turkish phonetics helped me to understand english, french and german phonetics and then after i found out ETYMONLINE (dot) com i started to understand and english writing.

I found out an excellent turkish grammar written by a famous British/Scottish grammarian written in 1950-ies when Turkey entered NATO.  Not  too deep - just essentials + some exercises + some military terms. And what made me happy was conjugation of the adjectives!!! You see in russian in present tense they omit verb BE. So do turks, but verbal ending of BE goes to the end of the adjective  - very nice and simple idea + turks use the same verbal endings for all verbs in all tenses(with a very, very few exceptions). For an exercise I took verbal endings of russian BE and put them at the end of their adjectives in Nominative case. It was nice. I downloaded Pimsleur's audio lessons and I listen to them in my car, also catch turkish radio and listen to it especially love commercials.

Japanese is a long, long shot for me as distance and intellectual capabilities.

 

I am really afraid that i am boring. If this is the case - just say - there will not be any hard feelings.

Have a nice day.

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I learned a lot of what I know about English grammar from studying other languages.We didn't learn much grammar at school.

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