# The mechanism that causes spacetime to exist, and unifies QM & GR, I call the pre-photon

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The scientific community’s understanding, at present, is that the spacetime continuum exists, but there is no clear understanding of how or what it’s made of.  One of the major objectives of physics is to unify quantum mechanics with general relativity in a theory of everything.  All expectations are that some very abstract mathematical equation will solve everything.  However, it is possible to reason out the mechanism that causes QM and GR by considering some facts and their implications.

Let’s start with an event and then consider the spacetime interval. The spacetime interval is a mathematical formulation that starts with an event that is seen by two observers on two inertial reference frames, x-ct and x’-ct’.  It is written as, $(\Delta s)^2 = (\Delta x)^2 + (\Delta y)^2 + (\Delta z)^2 –(c \Delta t)^2 = (\Delta s’)^2 = (\Delta x’)^2 + (\Delta y’)^2 + (\Delta z’)^2 –(c \Delta t’)^2$.  When an event occurs, it starts at a point.  In order for the event to be observed by multiple observers in multiple inertial frames, the information has to travel outwards, in all directions, at the speed of light so that the rest of the universe can be updated.

The fact that all observers in their inertial reference frames have clocks and rulers that are tied to the speed of light is an indication that nature created those inertial frames with mechanisms that travel at the speed of light.  The speed of light is $c = \lambda_i \nu_i$ for each observer i.  The wavelength is the ruler and the frequency is the clock for each reference frame that started at a point and travels outward at the speed of light.

It is an accepted fact that all physics information propagates at the speed of light.  But physicists don’t specify what they mean by “physics information”.  I will define physics information to be the quantum states of the form $\phi = k_x x + k_y y + k_z z - \omega t$ such that a wave $\psi = e^{i \phi}$ emits from the point of an event in spacetime.  Since anything and everything can be an event, these waves are being emitted everywhere, all the time.   Most of the time, these waves are empty of matter-energy; the one time they were full of mass-energy was the big bang, which also started from a point.   They are vacant states that facilitate the geodesic.

The $\phi$ term is the electromagnetic oscillation as a phase that exists everywhere in space; it is conserved.

Does this mechanism have anything to do with the virtual photon?  Maybe, but so little is known about virtual photons.  We can call this mechanism a pre-photon and identify it as the cause of spacetime geometry.

Quantum mechanics solves for solutions to differential equations involving kinetic and potential energy.  Why does nature work this way?  Pre-photons already have permittivity and permeability built into them, as $c^2 \epsilon \mu = 1$.  Pre-photons are readily available everywhere and will easily conform to the potential energy of a quantum system.  When this happens, the quantum states of the pre-photon are shaped in a way that is described by the solution to the Schrodinger differential equation.

The pre-photon expands at the speed of light, with a volume of $V = \frac{4}{3} \pi (ct)^3$ and has a surface area of $A = 4 \pi (ct)^2$.  It only takes a second for a pre-photon to become two light seconds wide.  By that time, it is no longer a point, it is a large volume of space and can behave like a field.

Gravity is not implemented by gravitons.  Instead, the positive mass energy described by the stress-energy tensor casts a negative energy reflection in spacetime.  When the wavelength states of all of these pre-photons (which implement spacetime) reaches an equilibrium of negative potential energy, the result is the curvature of spacetime.  That’s how gravity works.

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Gravity waves has a spin 2 quadrupole waveform. Photons has a spin 1 Dipolar waveform. The two do not match. Their waveforms are different. Photons only has two polarity states while gravity waves has four. LIGO would not have been able to detect a GW wave if gravity was prephotons whatever that means. Theory falsified by observational data.

Edited by Mordred
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2 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

The scientific community’s understanding, at present, is that the spacetime continuum exists, but there is no clear understanding of how or what it’s made of.

Yiu==ou are jumping the gun. You need to establish that it's actually made of something.

2 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

It is an accepted fact that all physics information propagates at the speed of light.

No, it travels no faster than the speed of light.

2 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

But physicists don’t specify what they mean by “physics information”.  I will define physics information to be the quantum states of the form ϕ=kxx+kyy+kzzωt such that a wave ψ=eiϕ emits from the point of an event in spacetime.  Since anything and everything can be an event, these waves are being emitted everywhere, all the time.   Most of the time, these waves are empty of matter-energy; the one time they were full of mass-energy was the big bang, which also started from a point.   They are vacant states that facilitate the geodesic.

You don't get to define it.

2 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

The ϕ term is the electromagnetic oscillation as a phase that exists everywhere in space; it is conserved.

How can it exist everywhere in space if it is limited to propagate at c? What is an "oscillation as a phase"? What, specifically, is conserved?

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4 hours ago, swansont said:

Yiu==ou are jumping the gun. You need to establish that it's actually made of something.

Spacetime is 3+1 geometry spread out over the whole universe.  It is constantly updated by events that express their effect through the stress-energy tensor, which effects the geodesic.   The analogy is,  spacetime continuum:prephotons::ocean:water molecules.

4 hours ago, swansont said:

No, it travels no faster than the speed of light.

Pre-photons update the rest of spacetime at the speed of light, with changes to the spacetime continuum.  The particles of an exploding fire cracker might travel slower than c, but pre-photons are constantly emitting from the slow moving debris.  Pre-photons are like updates to the spacetime continuum.  They are made out of spacetime geometry themselves and quantum states that carry information about events.

4 hours ago, swansont said:

You don't get to define it.

?

4 hours ago, swansont said:

How can it exist everywhere in space if it is limited to propagate at c?

What is an "oscillation as a phase"? What, specifically, is conserved?

The pre-photons of the big bang fill all space and time.  All pre-photons after that are still catching up, expanding at the speed of light.

At the time that I realized it, it was strange; it will no doubt be hard to convince you.  The oscillations of a photon are electromagnetic oscillations with frequency $\omega = \frac {\partial\phi}{\partial t} {/latex}. Over time, from t1 to t2, the phase that is laid down, in the form of an electromagnetic field, is [latex] \int \frac{\partial \phi}{\partial t} dt = \phi(t_2) - \phi(t_1)$

Edited by Wulphstein
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1 minute ago, Wulphstein said:

Spacetime is 3+1 geometry spread out over the whole universe.

Yes, a geometry.

1 minute ago, Wulphstein said:

It is constantly updated by events that express their effect through the stress-energy tensor, which effects the geodesic.   The analogy is,  spacetime continuum:prephotons::ocean:water molecules.

Analogies are not evidence.

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1 minute ago, swansont said:

Analogies are not evidence.

An analogy is required to make the physics community understand what is happening.  That's why the physics community thinks that quantum entanglements are made out of worm holes, and crazy stuff like that.  You NEED analogies.

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Just now, Wulphstein said:

An analogy is required to make the physics community understand what is happening.  That's why the physics community thinks that quantum entanglements are made out of worm holes, and crazy stuff like that.  You NEED analogies.

You’re thinking of pop-sci reporting. A model and evidence is what the physics community will understand, and wants.

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1 hour ago, swansont said:

You’re thinking of pop-sci reporting. A model and evidence is what the physics community will understand, and wants.

I want to thank you for taking the time to look at my model.

My model is based on some common sense assumptions assumptions,  that the spacetime continuum is updated constantly by events. Those updates are made of spacetime geometry and quantum states. The pre photon mechanism is the best choice to give common sense insight that could lead to productive directions for research. The current mathematical models lead the physics community away from a common sense understanding of nature. Examples include unmeasureable particles. It leads our attention away from things that do exist, like virtual photons,  that could have deeper mechanisms.

6 hours ago, Mordred said:

Gravity waves has a spin 2 quadrupole waveform. Photons has a spin 1 Dipolar waveform. The two do not match. Their waveforms are different. Photons only has two polarity states while gravity waves has four. LIGO would not have been able to detect a GW wave if gravity was prephotons whatever that means. Theory falsified by observational data.

Ignoring that distinction will not result is an error.  Pre photons are a mechanism to update space with spacetime geometry,  quantum states  and allows for physics information about events to be distributed.  Prephotons can serve as wave functions,  virtual photons, real photons. Or be used to contain standard model particles.

Pre photons weigh nothing.

They can spin, possibly subject to nh, integer times Planck constant.

Edited by Wulphstein
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You can't ignore that distinction. It's an essential aspect of gravity radiation.

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1 hour ago, Wulphstein said:

I want to thank you for taking the time to look at my model.

My model is based on some common sense assumptions assumptions,  that the spacetime continuum is updated constantly by events. Those updates are made of spacetime geometry and quantum states. The pre photon mechanism is the best choice to give common sense insight that could lead to productive directions for research. The current mathematical models lead the physics community away from a common sense understanding of nature. Examples include unmeasureable particles. It leads our attention away from things that do exist, like virtual photons,  that could have deeper mechanisms.

When are you going to post it?

what experiments will confirm it, to the exclusion of other models?

2 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

?

You don’t get to take term used in mainstream physics and give it your own definition. There is no assurance that your definition will be consistent with anything other than your own speculation

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This wave equation is for a two dimensional Hilbert space it only applies in the x y coordinates with the wave propagation along the x axis.

$\psi = e^{i \phi}$ you can immediately recognize that detail by the indices. Ie your measuring it on a screen.

See the plot here

That plot does not represent a photon or any particle. There are no finite boundaries.

Edited by Mordred
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3 hours ago, swansont said:

When are you going to post it?

what experiments will confirm it, to the exclusion of other models?

You don’t get to take term used in mainstream physics and give it your own definition. There is no assurance that your definition will be consistent with anything other than your own speculation

Mordred

If the stagnation in physics could be fixed by a mathematical model, we would have unified GR with QM, and know how to build a curvature generator, anti gravity by now using particles that exist.

You need to look at physics from another point of view. You don't need a mathematical model to figure out that spacetime is updated by a spherical wavefront that is emitted by an event in spacetime.

That should also tell you that quantum states are related to spacetime geometry in some way, that I wasn't able to articulate mathematically.  Don't you think that causality also travels outward at the speed of light?

If there is one mechanism that emits at the speed of light from an event, don't you think spacetime geometry will be one of its features?

There is too much to explain how quantum mechanics has detected quantum states. You don't see the connection.  But quantum states and geometry of spacetime both exist in a mechanism that expands at c, from an event.

You can't get this picture from mathematics.  It would explain how gr,qm are unified, c invariance is occurring,  geometry is implemented,  time is implemented.

Look at physics from another point of view, like pieces to a puzzle.

All those quantum states hidden away in spacetime have momentum and energy states. Spacetime achieves equilibrium with mass-energy by adjusting those energy-momentum states. The inevitable result is that the wavelength and frequency states, which control time and distance, are changed as well.  Resulting in curvature and gravitational time dilation.

Edited by Wulphstein
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You need to apply the correct formulas that coincide with what you wish to describe. You have yet to post a correctly applied wavefunction.

Model building is great but you need to do it properly otherwise your not accomplishing anything.

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24 minutes ago, Mordred said:

You need to apply the correct formulas that coincide with what you wish to describe. You have yet to post a correctly applied wavefunction.

Model building is great but you need to do it properly otherwise your not accomplishing anything.

A friend of mine at work who is smarter than all of us listened to my idea and said I was describing a "ghost" particle. Since all of its quantum states are empty of energy and matter. I'm still not sure if I'm describing a graviton. I was hoping that "expand at the speed of light" would paint a picture. That would explain a transition from "quantum scale" to "gravitational scale". If you didn't understand and still want a model, I confess that I don't know how to explain it any better.

I still welcome questions.

2 hours ago, Mordred said:

This wave equation is for a two dimensional Hilbert space it only applies in the x y coordinates with the wave propagation along the x axis.

ψ=eiϕ you can immediately recognize that detail by the indices. Ie your measuring it on a screen.

See the plot here

That plot does not represent a photon or any particle. There are no finite boundaries.

Were you thinking of spherical geometry? How do you describe a 3d+1 set of quantum states expanding at the speed of light?

4 hours ago, swansont said:

When are you going to post it?

what experiments will confirm it, to the exclusion of other models?

You don’t get to take term used in mainstream physics and give it your own definition. There is no assurance that your definition will be consistent with anything other than your own speculation

Are you referring to the term "physics information "? I don't remember Leonard Suskind defining it. Do you have a definition?

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3 hours ago, Mordred said:

You need to apply the correct formulas that coincide with what you wish to describe. You have yet to post a correctly applied wavefunction.

Model building is great but you need to do it properly otherwise your not accomplishing anything.

Well, a Bessel function is a solution to a differential in spherical coordinates.  The only problem is, I don't know how to solve something like this that is expanding with time, and also has a time element.

Incidentally, can you think of any quantum gravity theories that have the feature of point quantum gravity events expanding at the speed of light in all directions?  Even gravitons aren't described this way.

I get the feeling that point events might start out normalized, but would be impossible to normalize very quickly.  But that doesn't mean nature wouldn't update spacetime this way.

Edited by Wulphstein
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OK here is a hint learn how to apply the four momentum to the Klein Gordon equations. What you need will end up being QFT instead of QM. Now here is the tricky part you will end up having to deal with symmetry and rotation groups. Unfortunately this will take considerable study.

Both QFT and GR use the same  four momentum methodology the rotation groups are essentially identical

PS there  is in physics a ghost field. It arises in certain group theories Fadeev Popup ghosts is variation

Edited by Mordred
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11 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

Are you referring to the term "physics information "? I don't remember Leonard Suskind defining it. Do you have a definition?

For the first part, I was referring to your model - i.e. what you were talking about in the post that I quoted. You said you had one. Are you going to post it? The math will explain a lot.

For the second part, I don’t have one memorized, but Suskind wouldn’t be the only source of one

11 hours ago, Wulphstein said:

A friend of mine at work who is smarter than all of us listened to my idea and said I was describing a "ghost" particle. Since all of its quantum states are empty of energy and matter. I'm still not sure if I'm describing a graviton. I was hoping that "expand at the speed of light" would paint a picture. That would explain a transition from "quantum scale" to "gravitational scale". If you didn't understand and still want a model, I confess that I don't know how to explain it any better.

I’m not familiar with these ghost particles.

Nor can I visualize quantum states that have no energy. How does that happen? What about them is quantized?

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Well I know the OP won't be able to answer this one so I will

5 hours ago, swansont said:

I’m not familiar with these ghost particles.

Nor can I visualize quantum states that have no energy. How does that happen? What about them is quantized?

Ghost fields arise in perturbation theories such as QFT. They refer to unphysical states or left over degrees of freedom in gauge groups. Through gauge invariance where the field degrees of freedom exceed the degrees of freedom of the particle such as the photon the ghosts are the mechanism to account for the unused degrees of freedom.

A commonly used example is

$A_\mu(x)$ the photon that is normalized from this field only has two polarity states. The left over states will be goiter rid of through the ghost field.

The other condition is the negative modes of a Fourier transform when we induce a positive norm. The negative norm states violate unity.

It's not really a state of no energy but the energy would correlate to those of field fluctuations that don't induce localized action. They would reside in internal lines of a Feynman diagram.

A physical state being measurable by definition an unphysical state would not be measurable.

Edited by Mordred
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5 minutes ago, Mordred said:

Well I know the OP won't be able to answer this one so I will

Ghost fields arise in perturbation theories such as QFT. They refer to unphysical states or left over degrees of freedom in gauge groups. Through gauge invariance where the field degrees of freedom exceed the degrees of freedom of the particle such as the photon the ghosts are the mechanism to account for the unused degrees of freedom.

A commonly used example is

Aμ(x) the photon that is normalized from this field only has two polarity states. The left over states will be goiter rid of through the ghost field.

The other condition is the negative modes of a Fourier transform when we induce a positive norm. The negative norm states violate unity.

Thanks.

Though I don’t see how this fits with Wulphstein’s conjecture, as he is insisting that the states are “quantum states of spacetime” and I don’t think his idea has even sniffed gauge invariance

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I concur on that point

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5 hours ago, swansont said:

Thanks.

Though I don’t see how this fits with Wulphstein’s conjecture, as he is insisting that the states are “quantum states of spacetime” and I don’t think his idea has even sniffed gauge invariance

The connection between spacetime geometry and quantum states is there.  The minimum requirement for spacetime geometry to exist is that a clock and a ruler must exist for every inertial frame; but those clocks have to the be tied to the invariant speed of light.  A photon (both virtual and real) has wavelength and frequency in the relationship $c = \lambda \nu$.  It looks like this.

What do you notice exists within the photon?  Electromagnetism.  [\latex] c^2 \mu \epsilont = 1 $. If there was a potential energy made of electron charge, it would cause photons (both real and virtual) to interact with it because photons have electromagnetic fields. In many cases, the solution to the Schrodinger equation has a potential energy term that is often made of charges. The solution is the wave function which I have often stated (without a mathematical derivation) is describing a virtual photon. I had to start with an "event" in spacetime and talk about the spacetime interval (many inertial frames whose rulers and clocks are invariant to the speed of light); then I had to make a logical argument that any event would have to update the rest of the universe at the speed of light. I don't know what it is that has both properties of virtual photons and spacetime geometry, so I called it a pre-photon. Graviton? ##### Link to comment ##### Share on other sites 1 hour ago, Wulphstein said: The connection between spacetime geometry and quantum states is there. Where? You keep promising, but not delivering. What about these states is quantized? (you said there is no energy, and no matter) 1 hour ago, Wulphstein said: The minimum requirement for spacetime geometry to exist is that a clock and a ruler must exist for every inertial frame; but those clocks have to the be tied to the invariant speed of light. A photon (both virtual and real) has wavelength and frequency in the relationship c=λν . It looks like this. What do you notice exists within the photon? Electromagnetism. [\latex] c^2 \mu \epsilont = 1 [latex]. If there was a potential energy made of electron charge, it would cause photons (both real and virtual) to interact with it because photons have electromagnetic fields. In many cases, the solution to the Schrodinger equation has a potential energy term that is often made of charges. The solution is the wave function which I have often stated (without a mathematical derivation) is describing a virtual photon. But spacetime isn’t charged. These are states with no energy and no matter (you said so) so how can charge be a part of the description? ##### Link to comment ##### Share on other sites 3 hours ago, swansont said: Where? You keep promising, but not delivering. What about these states is quantized? (you said there is no energy, and no matte﻿r) Where? Look at the picture of the photon. I call them pre-photons instead of virtual photons. Do you see where it says "wavelength"? That's a ruler. In 3D, It creates the geometry of space-time. Do you see where it says frequency? Well that's a clock. Since they're built into the same object, a pre-photon, then together, they are a mechanism of spacetime. They are literally tied to [latex] c = \lambda \nu$.

If it was part of a quantum system, lets say an infinite potential well of length L, it would be quantized as shown in the figure below.  The pre-photon is a place to put energy, a particle, momentum.  So if there is a charge near by, the pre-photon has a place to put electromagnetic energy, and consequently could interact with the charge like a virtual photon.  Just looking at the pictures makes one think that a quantum system could contain n pre-photons.  They are not a conserved quantity, so it's not a problem.

3 hours ago, swansont said:

But spacetime isn’t char﻿ged. These are states with no energy and no matter (you said so) so how can charge be a part of the description?

Spacetime is made out of clocks and rulers.  Those clocks and rulers are the phase of the pre-photon(s) that fill all space will wavelength states (in 3 dimensions), which is 3D geometry, and frequency states.  A pre-photon doesn't have a particular frequency or energy.  It obeys $E = h\nu$.  It has all of the available frequency states, and lays down those states at the speed of light in all directions of 3D.

Only standard model particles can carry charge. Only particle creation/annihilation processes can create standard model particles.  Particle + anti-particle --> hv.

In quantum field theory, there is a field for every kind of particle.  There is an electron field, quark field, gluon field, every kind of particle.  I don't know how a pre-photon becomes an electron field, etc.

Edited by Wulphstein
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Did I mention that when pre-photons are emitted from points A and B, their momentum states  will eventually mix.

It's the quantum momentum states that are key to the acceleration of gravity.

The plane wave solution to the Schrodinger equation is,

$\psi = e^{\frac {i}{\hbar}(\vec {p} . \vec{r} - Et)}$

The momentum operator is $\vec {p} = -i \hbar \vec{ \nabla}$

Edited by Wulphstein
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The r vector is a radius vector of the pre photon that is described with the wave function above as $r = ct$.

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