# I need help

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I'm a 7th grader and i would like help to better understand string theory and quantum theory in general.

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Well, um, I dunno exactly where to start you a 7th grader. So, lets begin with wave particle duality, wave particle duality is how Energy-Mass acts at small levels being Quantum as a particle and a wave at the same time. This is true of all very small objects on this level.

There are atoms and atoms are made up of smaller particles such as Electrons which are classified as leptons and Protons and Neutrons which are then composed of smaller particles classified as Quarks. We have a old model of this being the Bohr Model which is not exactly correct as it only sees them as particles and not Wave-Particles as they actually are, but is a good model to start with.

In any case, as you can see the electrons with a negative charge orbit the nucleus of Protons and neutrons these protons are positively charged while the Neutrons are neutral charged, this being the structure of a atom in particle form. Now, there is also wave form which will be shown next of a Hydrogen atom.

Now, the electrons are in wave form, see how they are not at an exact location, which is not perfectly correct either being that they are waves and particles at the same time, but this is a much closer quantum model of the orbitals of the electrons, the electrons have a change of appearing at any location within those bright spots and less of a change of appearing within the dark spots. The chance of them appearing at a certain location is based on their energy, wave function, and mass , this can be given by the Schrodinger equation, which will be shown next.

Next, lets return the atom which has Neutrons and Protons in the middle, they are held together by something called the Strong Nuclear Force, the positive charges should repel each-other, Remember positive and positive repel along with Negative and Negative, that is how charge works, but positive and negative attract, which is why electrons go around the atom, but these protons and neutrons have smaller things within them called quarks, there are two types of quarks that protons and neutrons are made of Up and Down quarks, they are always in sets of three within protons and neutrons, they make something called a triplet, which each quarks takes a color charge, which not to be confused with charge, tells the Strong Nuclear Force, how to act on them, a Single proton or neutron requires Red,Blue, and Green Color Charge to be constructed. This is called Quantum Chromodynamics. This Strong Nuclear Force is also what keeps the nucleus of the atom together despite all being positively charged protons or neutral neutrons which should all fly apart, the Strong Nuclear Force is much stronger than Charge at short ranges.

There is also a class of particles called Bosons, there are Fives types of Bosons Weak Positive,Weak Negative, Photons, Z Bosons, and Higgs bosons. Well, there is another type of interaction that can happen called the Weak Nuclear Force or Decay. Weak positives and Weak Negatives happen when Protons turn to neutrons and Neutrons turn to Protons, And Z bosons happen by other sorts of decay which we will not discuss at this point.

Photons are light particles and light is the wave form of light, Light or photons act as wave-particles, these particles do not have mass but only Energy, They have several important things about them Wavelength,Frequency, and Energy. They always travel at the speed of light as you may have guessed. They are created when electrons lose energy equal to the amount of energy lost by the electron. The electrons can also absorb light or photon particles and gain energy from them.

There is much more than that but those are the basics, congrats you now know Quantum Mechanics.

Edited by Vmedvil
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String theory to properly describe would require serious math skills to understand degree of freedom reductions.

Lets see how well you do with quantum mechanics from Vmedvil's well thought out summary.

Edited by Mordred
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If you want to get a bit of the flavour of string theory without the math Brian Greene's Ted Talk on the subject is interesting:

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I you understood the idea of quantization that Vmedvil was trying to teach you with regard to the quantization of light, which is Electromagnetic Radiation, this implies that the electromagnetic force is quantized, through a theory called Quantum Electro Dynamics.
Two other forces have been quantized also, the weak force, which is a 'spin-off' of the Electromagnetic force and the Strong Nuclear force , which  makes up the protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus  ( see Vmedvil' description ) through a theory called Quantum Chromo Dynamics.

The only force which resists quantization, so far, is the Gravitational force, and we are unable to deal with the Gravitational force when masses are really ( I mean really, really ) close together.
String theory, and another called Loop Quantum Gravity are two attempts at a working theory.
Unfortunately, with our present technology, neither can be tested for accuracy.

If you understood Vmedvil's post, and what I was trying to convey, you already know more than 95% of average persons.
And I'm impressed ( and proud ) of your 'need to know' and desire to learn.
Keep it up and someday we'll be asking you questions.

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10 hours ago, sci-man said:

I'm a 7th grader and i would like help to better understand string theory and quantum theory in general.

Amazing.

You're one of the first people on this forum that I know is younger than me.

Just reading through half of these discussions you'll realize just how much there is that you don't know, and how much fun it is to learn so much so quickly.

If you have a few hours to kill, I suggest watching these:

14 videos of well thought out and accurate things for quantum mechanics.

And generally, check out a lot of their videos.

Not everything on youtube is accurate but some things are capable of building a basic understanding of it. If you watch all these videos, I guarantee you'll be able to understand Vmedvil's post if you can't already.

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16 hours ago, MigL said:

I you understood the idea of quantization that Vmedvil was trying to teach you with regard to the quantization of light, which is Electromagnetic Radiation, this implies that the electromagnetic force is quantized, through a theory called Quantum Electro Dynamics.
Two other forces have been quantized also, the weak force, which is a 'spin-off' of the Electromagnetic force and the Strong Nuclear force , which  makes up the protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus  ( see Vmedvil' description ) through a theory called Quantum Chromo Dynamics.

The only force which resists quantization, so far, is the Gravitational force, and we are unable to deal with the Gravitational force when masses are really ( I mean really, really ) close together.
String theory, and another called Loop Quantum Gravity are two attempts at a working theory.
Unfortunately, with our present technology, neither can be tested for accuracy.

If you understood Vmedvil's post, and what I was trying to convey, you already know more than 95% of average persons.
And I'm impressed ( and proud ) of your 'need to know' and desire to learn.
Keep it up and someday we'll be asking you questions.

thanks and i do understand it and could you help with my other post adout Encephalartos woodii

16 hours ago, Raider5678 said:

Amazing.

You're one of the first people on this forum that I know is younger than me.

Just reading through half of these discussions you'll realize just how much there is that you don't know, and how much fun it is to learn so much so quickly.

If you have a few hours to kill, I suggest watching these:

14 videos of well thought out and accurate things for quantum mechanics.

And generally, check out a lot of their videos.

Not everything on youtube is accurate but some things are capable of building a basic understanding of it. If you watch all these videos, I guarantee you'll be able to understand Vmedvil's post if you can't already.

thank you also i will watch these the only other thing im doing is a perpetual motion machine

Edited by sci-man
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Sorry to disappoint you...
I know very little biology, and can assure you that your perpetual motion experiments will be failures.

Maybe you should study up on the Thermodynamic laws.
( or feel free to ask here )

Edited by MigL
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36 minutes ago, sci-man said:

A perpetual motion machine has never been created before, and many people have tried.

However, if you happen to find some way to stumble across a way to do this then please, by all means do it.

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8 minutes ago, Roger Dynamic Motion said:

Time and distance from 2 different axis must be understood ,,, Sci-Man   before you can attempt your journey in search of a Technic to build a ''working Machine'' without the need of an outside force

I believe its possible.

From what I've seen of many a successful perpetual motion machine, a little misunderstanding always helps. Cycling of seemingly insignificant errors until they add up to something special seems to be the key, and if all else fails when making a prototype, just cheat a little, put it on You Tube and by all means ask for money...you are after all saving the World at the expense of greedy oil and power companies...

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On second thought, just go to the Wiki entry on Laws of Thermodynamics.

If you ask here, you will get some very good answers, but also others, which steer you down the path to being a 'crackpot'.

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!

Moderator Note

Roger Dynamic Motion,

Do not hijack this thread with your own speculations. I have hidden your more recent posts. Any others will also be hidden and you will receive an official warning.

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thanks for believing Raider5678 and migl i accept the challenge

5 hours ago, Raider5678 said:

A perpetual motion machine has never been created before, and many people have tried.

However, if you happen to find some way to stumble across a way to do this then please, by all means do it.

my current idea is not to tell anyone because I am going to patent the idea and I don"t want anyone to take it

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30 minutes ago, sci-man said:

thanks for believing Raider5678 and migl i accept the challenge

my current idea is not to tell anyone because I am going to patent the idea and I don"t want anyone to take it

Fair enough.

You're just in the planning phase, aren't you?

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7 hours ago, sci-man said:

my current idea is not to tell anyone because I am going to patent the idea and I don"t want anyone to take it

The patent office will automatically reject any application for a perpetual motion machine.

12 hours ago, Raider5678 said:

A perpetual motion machine has never been created before,

There is a reason for that.

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9 hours ago, sci-man said:

thanks for believing Raider5678 and migl i accept the challenge

Don't do that. You could spend that (inevitably wasted) time doing something productive, like learning physics.

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21 hours ago, Raider5678 said:

Fair enough.

You're just in the planning phase, aren't you?

yeah : )

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Kids do it all the time   keeping balance

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1 hour ago, Roger Dynamic Motion said:

Kids do it all the time   keeping balance

Um, no.

That's not perpetual motion.

That's changing chemical energy into them moving around to keep balance.

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mechanical energy

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Just now, Mordred said:

mechanical energy

Yeah.

Sorry.

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np

edit though a human body would burn chemical energy to perform mechanical energy to keep his/her balance. The main form of work to keep balance itself involves mechanical energy.

lol depends on how indepth one examines the problem.

@Sci-man if you want the most critical areas to focus on in your studies to provide the essential tools to master any Physics related topic or model.

Pay extreme extensive attention to the following topics.

1) Any topic involving kinematic motion or displacement

2) Differential geometry ( including trigonometry), Algebra, Calculus. Statistical mechanics.

3) Any topic involving thermodynamics.

4) Any topics involving wave dynamics.

5) Vectors, scalars, spinors and any math rules involving them

Those are the major essentials Though others may add to the list. Never stop focussing on the above, they are essential in every model under physics.

Pay particular attention to memorizing and adhering to any definitions you are taught and understand those definitions under mathematical treatment.

They will always apply regardless of how advanced a model is. They all apply the definitions you are currently learning. Keep your focus on these topics and your understanding of any physics related topic will increase regardless if it is GR, classical, QM, QFT, (all) or string theory.

Edited by Mordred
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Mordred I just want to learn a little about physics (And I don't want to go into advanced studies) but more so to 'quantum' stuff so I can help others understand better too my long term job will be either N.A.S.A or a Navy S.e.A.L so I am trying to get a better understanding of these things but I might not go into N.A.S.A so ............

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No prob, either way the math skills and courses I mentioned above will be useful regardless of career choice. They will help in any physics related studies including engineering applications

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6 hours ago, sci-man said:

Mordred I just want to learn a little about physics (And I don't want to go into advanced studies) but more so to 'quantum' stuff so I can help others understand better too my long term job will be either N.A.S.A or a Navy S.e.A.L so I am trying to get a better understanding of these things but I might not go into N.A.S.A so ............

You shouldn't be able to learn about ''quantum stuff'' at any useful level at this age. Mayb you get get an idea of what it is, but not much more than that. When you get to college, then you can study physics and hopefully be able to grasp this stuff. The majority of people have trouble with it.

That being said, you will need more than ''a little bit about physics'' to make a perpetual motion machine. You'd need magic.

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