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Everything posted by UC

  1. Nono, I meant about the alpha value. Usually if the question cares, it will give you the pH of the solution and Ka1 and Ka2 of carbonic acid.
  2. [ce] Ksp=[Mn^2^+][CO3^2^-] [/ce]. where [] indicate concentration (molarity). Be sure to apply an alpha value for the fraction of carbonate that stays as carbonate. Keep in mind that it's 6am and I've yet to sleep, so I may be wrong.
  3. Ditto for Magnesium, which keeps turning up as well, unless of course, you have sodium to waste.
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoxalic_acid less oxidized products include dihydroxyacetone (sunless tanning products) and glyceraldehyde (important compound of you're stereoisomer-savvy) but yes, both are irrelevant to the discussion. I think glycerol would be more far more valuable as a feedstock than as a fuel.
  5. That would involve magically adding carbons
  6. Actually, I think the corrosion of the magnesium would be hindered by formation of a hydroxide skin. Unlike aluminum hydroxide/oxide, which you are probably thinking of, magnesium hydroxide is not amphoteric.
  7. I'm under the impression that tin doesn't reduce too cleanly, but perhaps I am wrong. Stannous oxide would be much easier to work with than stannic as well. The SnO2 of industry is a hard, calcined, largely unreactive compound. Molten alkaline fusion may be able to dissolve it as stannates though. PbO should be easy to get and use. Plus, you're making what, a couple grams of waste?
  8. not at all, especially in aqueous solution. look up reactivity series. I dont think sodium can be distilled out of the mix of molten NaOH and Mg too easily or you could cheat with Le Chatlier's principle and a lot of heat.
  9. UC


    MgSO4 decomposes before it melts.
  10. Well, an amide certainly won't be basic enough, since they're roughly neutral. I have no idea about amines, but the link isn't working for me. I suspect that they are too weak, but perhaps under certain conditions.
  11. I think it may have more to do with allowing the new layer of fluoroapatite set properly, in which case, rinsing your mouth out is not advised. i suspect a quick rinse with plain water is probably fine though, just not soda or fruit juice or something. It is probably quite possible to stain it at this point.
  12. Well, dehydration gives acrolein (acrylaldehyde) by tautomerization, and the oxidation product of that would be acrylic acid. Without dehydration there would be so many hydrogen bonding groups available that the boiling point would probably exceed decomposition temperature. Ozone would just chew glycerol up into CO2 and formaldehyde.
  13. You have a tertiary alkyl bromide there. Bromide is a so-so leaving group and because it's tertiary, SN2 is never going to happen. Ethanol, being very weakly basic, will promote SN1 type reactions. Because the mixture is being heated, dehydrohalogenation via E1 is the favored reaction. If it were in the cold, SN1 substitution might show up more. Merged post follows: Consecutive posts merged Depends what kind of alkyl halide you're using, and what kind of alcohol is being used. If the halide is primary and a bromide or especially an iodide, one could expect some amount of ether formation. If the alkyl halide is secondary or tertiary, E1 elimination will be the favored reaction path, especially if the mixture is heated strongly.
  14. *directs you toward a chemistry book and demands that you make sense*
  15. my god, what a heap of crap. lock please?
  16. That's a load. a $1 bottle of 2% iodine tincture has about a gram on iodine in it, IIRC. Now buying a kilo of iodine off ebay is another story, and may well get you reported to some agency or another. Technically, it's not illegal to own at all, in any quantity, though. The same is true with pseudoephedrine cold medicine. It's not illegal, just really sketchy to buy lots of it. The only thing that's truly illegal is making the drugs. V2O5 really isn't the way to go. I'd say that the folks on sciencemadness (the ones that aren't morons and cooks) are some of the best amateur chemists out there. They've stopped trying to use V2O5 for a reason. It's just not very amenable to scale-down at all, though it works great in a huge plant where you have precise reactor controls and a continuous production system. Ozone would work, but it's not pleasant to work with either. Bubbling O2 through SO2/H2SO4 will do nothing. I don't think you make much "pyrosulfuric acid" (maybe a small amount of equilibrium product) so much as a solution of SO3 in H2SO4. The energy barrier for [ce] 2SO2 + O2 -> 2SO3 [/ce] is just too high to overcome without a catalyst.
  17. Perhaps a grignard reagent can be used to add the alkyl chain onto the benzene ring. If you converted the benzene ring into benzaldehyde, isobutylmagnesium bromide dehydration, bromination, and double dehydrohalogenation would yield the desired product. Of course, you'd need to make the isobutyl bromide and benzaldehyde first, but it avoids the sonogashira.
  18. There is a reagent called trimethylsilyl acetylene, which has one end of a normal acetylene molecule protected from reaction. brominate the benzene, sonogashira with TMS-acetylene to TMS-ethynylbenzene, remove the TMS group (K2CO3 in methanol I believe), sonogashira #2 with iPrBr
  19. You can't use conc. H2SO4 for absorbing the SO3, because it will suck up the NO and NO2 to form nitrosylsulfuric acid: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrosylsulfuric_acid. IIRC, H2SO4 also dissolves SO2 pretty well. You see, a 1:1 mix of NO and NO2 dissolved in water is nitrous acid, so we can expect the following to occur readily: [ce] NO + NO2 + 2H2SO4 -> 2NOHSO4 + H2O [/ce]
  20. You can run it in a big plastic container; see here: http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=2824 [ce] NO2 + SO2 -> NO + SO3 [/ce] [ce] 2NO + O2 -> 2NO2 [/ce] SO3 is pretty horrible stuff, as are nitrogen oxides, and not to be taken lightly.
  21. no, no and no. Ferric sulfate can indeed eject SO3 at high temperatures, but this requires fused quartz apparatus and at those temperatures, SO3 substantially decomposes to SO2 and O2. The most workable method for SO3 is decomposition of sodium bisulfate, as seen on sciencemadness.org. SO2 will not substantially oxidize in water, and bubbling O2 through it will fill the room with SO2 instead. electrochemical series is largely useless here. V2O5 is a pretty strong oxidizer and is used for a reason. It's very sensitive to preparation methods (overheating makes it useless) and works best in a molten flux of cesium and potassium sulfates on a porous catalyst support, IIRC. You might want to try the "lead chamber" process, which involves burning sulfur mixed with KNO3 in a sealed container, within a larger container with some water in the bottom. The small amounts of NOx formed catalyze the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by O2. SO3 dissolves in the water to produce dilute sulfuric acid.
  22. smelting what? You need to get the temperature above the melting point of the metal. I believe that PbO with finely powdered charcoal would be workable.
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