No. Observables are not "prepared". Systems are.
Your the-observable R-will-be-a-state-vector is nonsense, because observables are not state vectors. Moreover, [math] | u + d\rangle[/math] is not a spin eigenvector.
Wrong. The final state after the measurement is not a superposition state but the state written before [math]|I;r\rangle |II;\alpha_r\rangle[/math], where [math]|I;r\rangle [/math] is a system eigenvector of the measured value for the observable R (spin, energy, position, or otherwise).
The irreversible process is described by [math]\Lambda[/math], which is not [math]U[/math]. The requirement of an observer is nonsense. [math]\Lambda[/math] does not require any observer and, evidently, there is none in the theory.
Wrong. A simple counterexample is a system prepared in an eigenvector of the measured observable. This example was discussed before, but you do not read.
Nonsense. A quantum system exists before any measurement (the theory of measurements is firmly rooted in this), the system state is in some pre-measurement state (e.g. in a state given by a state vector [math]|\Psi\rangle[/math] or otherwise) and its "attributes" are well defined (e.g, as matrices).
Nonsense. Subsystems are quantum systems described by quantum theory. Their observables are defined and computed in a analogue way to the treatment of subsystems in classical theory.
Wrong. It plays no role in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is based in a number of postulates, none of which is a "Bohr's complementarity principle". Klein reports how the rate of appearance of for Bohr's notion of complementarity in scientific works has been decreasing in recent years. In one or two decades it will be eliminated from basic textbooks as well (it is already eliminated in many advanced treatises).
Wrong. Universe is stochastic and as stated by Nobel laureate Prigogine "future is not given".
Wrong. Spacetime is emergent as quantum gravity and other modern research shows.
Another interview where Penrose shows his well-known misunderstandings.
Ironically, Schrödinger was notorious by his serious misunderstandings of the same theory that he helped to develop. E.g. Schrödinger never understood the physical meaning of the wavefunction. The correct physical interpretation was given by Bohm.
Minds and brains are part of the observable universe.
Wrong. Delayed choice experiments are explained by quantum mechanics without observers. Human free will is a consequence of the stochastic character of the universe. Nature is not deterministic.