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Everything posted by jimmydasaint

  1. What level of education are you jewel? K13? or A2 level ? That would influence the depth of your project and the depth of your responses.
  2. I think you should ask the Mods to post this in the "Homework" thread. and then refer to this: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter3/animation__mrna_synthesis__transcription___quiz_1_.html It is explained simply. If you don't get it, someone will help you out.
  3. That was brilliant! Please give me instructions, preferably in bullet points. Wonderful and can be tweaked. Both worked on my computer perfectly. Well done. Please share your method.
  4. This is so damn clever. If I read it correctly, CRISPR is a tool to edit DNA in a specific way. CRISPR has two parts to it: a cutting tool called Cas9 and a guide RNA. The RNA guide strand which is complementay to specific DNA binds to it. As it does so, the Cas9 bit of CRISPR cuts the DNA. Usual gene editing can add or delete a piece of DNA if required. This is a mutation created specifically in a specific part of the DNA. In this case, the toolkit is used so that the very DNA of the cell which made the guide RNA is cut by CRISPR but only if a certain molecule is present, e.g. like a molecule present during inflammation. As the DNA is cut by the CRISPR, a deletion is made (frameshift?) which then changes the sequence of the guide RNA. The CRISPR then travels back to the DNA with a changed sequence and cuts it out. the longer the stimulus/inflammation etc... molecule is present, the more mutations that accumulate in the DNA that codes for the guide RNA. Others can correct my interpretation, but, if what I have written is correct, this is the most exciting thing I have read in years. Great find DrmDoc! (Caveat - if I have ballsed up the explanation, please correct me) http://news.mit.edu/2016/recording-analog-memories-human-cells-0818?ncid=txtlnkusaolp00000618 Images show DNA being made into complementary RNA and then an image on how CRISPR works.
  5. Wow! i have just read the discussion above. I won't add my tuppence worth but I would advise the writer of the OP to read the following and, if there are any issues, to get back to the wise and compassionate staff on Sfn. http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-hydrostatic-pressure.htm
  6. Thank you. I take it that I need to use a disk with the animation on it. Is there any way to take an animation off a website and then embed it into a post for education purposes?
  7. Thank you for that heads up. Is it difficult to do given my limited computer knowledge?
  8. Any clues. I can just about login to Science Forum and have a reasonable knowledge of Word processing and Excel ( enough knowledge to make a Table in Word and change a cell value in Excel). So, my knowledge of using code is very limited. I would really like to present something like this in a post as an animation: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter14/animation__transmission_across_a_synapse.html
  9. I think a good animation or diagram is better than a hundred words: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter14/animation__transmission_across_a_synapse.html Come back after watching it and ask for further help if necessary.
  10. Sorry about this but your citation referenced a person who did not write was stated. Do you have a different citation please? I looked up the original 1953 paper and must have missed all these facts. Aebersold only mentioned applications of radioisotopic iodine etc...
  11. Pretty spiritual stuff here iNow. That is a nice quote from the author. Believe it or not, this was the thing that absolutely hooked me into biology as a teenager. It was the recycling of all matter throughout the biosphere. It was stunning and awesome. On a general note, are there estimates of how many atoms we have that are recycled from humans of old, or about how quickly the body recycles its cells? I seem to remember a figure of 7 years to recycle all body cells (except for brain cells?)?
  12. The actual cells are different IIRC. I will return with a citation if I find it. IIRC, maternal cells enter the embryo during pregnancy and embryonic cells enter the mother and, in certain cases in animals, had a protective effect. Awesome and beautiful. However, and this also needs citations, some forms of electromagnetic radiation damage DNA in germ cells. Keep the ideas coming and keep posting them in Speculations. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633676/ I cannot verify the scientific accuracy of the following. I can only present it: Right, I really have to sleep now.
  13. Please read the quote, it is actually about stripping hydrogen atoms off DNA, not breaking phosphodiester bonds: https://www.scienced...60518181301.htm I am also including an animation on DNA. Look at the complications of the bonds: http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAanatomy.html
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20663262 2. The DNA of the germ cells also receive lesions and ages, but in meiosis I and meiosis II and become zygote and eventually baby have an important step that fixes these lesions with a perfect repair, not the usual partial repair we have in our cells, it could also be that the genes are shuffled around in meiosis I and meiosis II that fixes the damage. Why do I come to this conclusion? Because the baby is not of age 29 years old when it's born or the baby ages faster with a damaged DNA, the baby's DNA has to be perfect with no damages when it's born. I don't know about meiotic repair, you would have to cite something to prove your point. Nevertheless, repair mechanisms occur to re-age chromatin in germ cells: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/925121/ Now for the conclusions for speculations 1 and 2: 1. For speculation 1, if we can obtain an undamaged DNA from the germ cells then we know which part of the DNA is damaged in other cells of the body and attempt to replace them with the undamaged one assuming all the DNA in our body are the same but only differs with gene expression. 2. For speculation 2, we need to identify the step that does a perfect repair to the DNA and duplicate that process for all the cells in our body. Keep in mind that in order to change the DNA in our body we need a nanomachine, crispr also works but we need 100% accuracy. I haven't found a DNA nanomachine capable of altering DNA. I thought that different humans would receive different damage depending on exposure to different ROS, different chemicals (mutagenesis), different diet, different ages (older people accumulating more hypothesised damage, different genders, different professions etc... I think you would struggle to ask 100 women to donate their ova and for your research to be performed unless the legislative authorities allow experiments on human eggs. There is a serious ethical issue here, in my opinion, which religious groups would jump upon. As for nanomachines, I don't imagine that nanoscience has yet reached this stage. P.S. I feel that the DNA damage theory is a bit outdated, everyone follow a set age normally of 100+- years of age. You don't live longer or shorter because of damages done to your DNA For a short chart: 1. parent undamaged DNA + parent undamaged DNA -> baby undamaged DNA 2. perfect repair(parent damaged DNA) + perfect repair(parent damaged DNA) -> baby undamaged DNA How many sperm would be repaired given that there are 300 million approx. released per ejaculation? The idea is good and you posted in the correct place. But, it needs a bit more background research about what is possible and what is not yet in the vista of scientific capability.
  15. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060518181301.htm The article is about computer chips. If you have a personal theory fredreload, why not state it clearly. This is the proper forum for speculations and psudoscience.
  16. Another couple of worrying statistics: 1. black women are more likely to die in childbirth than white women, regardless of demographic factor matches between both races. 2. As much as one third of the deaths were preventable. In the richest nation in the world, people are dying from having poor healthcare, or poor healthcare education - the purview of public healthcare bodies. My worry is that propaganda and political shenanigans have started in the UK to privatise and polarise healthcare in this country by picking on the conditions for junior doctors (this makes my blood boil, but I don't want to sideline your thread).
  17. Of course I hope it goes smoothly and that you are fit and well again. But, if you have time and you could ask the surgeon to put a photograph on top of the lights just in case . But in reality, my very best wishes for the operation and hope that you will come back at a time that 10 extrasolar Earth-like planets are discovered, just to cheer you up.
  18. With respect, your OP is what I answered. That subject is not closed unless you comment on the paper extract that I gave you and then we come to a conclusion. If you are creating another question, why not start a new thread?
  19. I don't understand why this is posted in the "speculations" thread. Nevertheless, the restoration of telomere length is a poorly understood process, but this seems to occur at an early developmental stage, not during meiosis but possibly during post-fertilisation mitosis, if I have read this paper correctly: I gave you a fairly long quote without editing by me: http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/v9/n12/full/ncb1664.html
  20. I wonder if it is a good idea to "integrity" test scientists like cops. RANDOM INTEGRITY TESTING: Random integrity tests are designed to observe and evaluate an officer’s conduct in situations in which a specific set of circumstances has been created that requires police intervention. Several major police departments, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the New York City Police Department (NYPD), and the New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) routinely conduct random integrity tests of their officers to determine if their conduct in handling their official duties is appropriate. There exist two schools of thought on this type of orchestrated integrity test. Many consider such action distasteful and unnecessary. Others argue that this type of testing is necessary to ensure that law enforcement officers do not abuse their powers and that the random testing of officers is a legitimate and necessary safeguard in maintaining integrity in a police organization. The purpose of this article is not to resolve the tension between these competing points of view, but instead to provoke discussion of the issues surrounding this process. In the 1970’s, ABC News conducted an integrity test in Miami, where 31 wallets containing money and identification were turned over by role players to 31 police officers. Nine of the officers kept the money and were subsequently fired and/or prosecuted. http://llrmi.com/articles/legal_update/le_integrity_tests.shtml In my opinion, as a former research scientist (Biochemistry, Immunology, Molecular Genetics) I was under pressure to publish and put myself in a better position for a new short-term contract. I would, under normal conditions, prefer those experiments which supported my hypotheses rather than those that negated them. Of course my emphasis was on repeatability and reliability and I would explore and then mention anomalies whenever I saw them. I was a young idealist and would honestly report my results like the vast majority of scientists with whom I collaborated or communicated. Only one of my papers negated a hypothesis rather than supporting it but I did feel that more experiments should disprove hypotheses. Not all research needs statistical proof, taking away one of the premises from the video. However, there is a need for researchers to rigorously test out the experiments of other researchers in their field. Confirming the findings of someone in your small area of a researcher (as a PhD or post-doc) is an excellent form of peer review. If the findings are not reproducible, then more papers should be retracted as a consequence. It is just ethical behaviour in my opinion.
  21. My feelings for posting the OP were genuine. I wanted the studies on Near Death Experiences and Out of Body Experiences to succeed but the numbers are not yet high enough and the accounts of a unified ego watching operations were anecdotal. Science has some explanation for why people can feel that their bodies float or feel in a different place but I do not have the opinion that this is proof of what happens to those people who can see the top of the heads of their medical attendants and hear snatches of conversation. Even if objects or cards are placed around hospital surgeries on high shelves for a "disembodied" spirit to observe, and the occasional person identifies those object clearly, the mystery of soul or no soul will still remain a controversial area for scientists.
  22. Sure. If you count this article as evidence. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2105834/Career-atheist-Richard-Dawkins-admits-fact-agnostic.html Sorry, I came back a little late. hope that is satisfactory. From my phone calculator. you can round that up to 0.99 or 99%. From what iNow has said, this was stated less dramatically in "The God Delusion" but I have not read the book so I am not able to make any other comment on it. Uh, oh! I missed the latter part of iNow's reply which has ample evidence rather than the rehashed quotation from a "newspaper".
  23. Some guys from my hometown-Glasgow, Scotland which is in the UK and also part of Europe.
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