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Everything posted by DrP

  1. Do you have a specific application in mind? Is it a one off requirement? Does the 'paint' have to last years or be water repellent? Are looking to protect a certain thing or are you trying to formulate a paint or is it just interest? Does it need to be a clear varnish or a coloured paint? There are different methods of achieving a high temperature resistant char. Most intumescent paints use Ammonium Polyphoshphate which reacts with the polymer binder (if it has the right functional groups) and other charring agents in a fire situation and promotes charring and cross linking over total oxidation. Blowing agents are used to foam up the chars into a thicker spongy layer which protects the wood/substrate. They aren't just single polymers - they are a formulated blend of chemicals which form the intumescing char in an intumescent paint. Melamine Formaldehyde resins though will intumesce on their own (but the usual 2 pack system that needs mixing to form the coating will probably contain formaldehyde and be hazardous). this is a different thing to intumescent paint. Just because it is heat resistant does not mean it will protect the substrate from heat. It just means the coating itself won't degrade. Again - there are many polymers that are heat resistant and all to different temperatures. Usually just to a few hundred degrees though, not thousands. Silicon containing polymers will give higher heat resistance. Again - what is the application? High temperature resistant fillers can be added to polymer blends to give higher heat and fire resistance.
  2. OK - I see. The 'black stuff' that remains after a fire can be called a char or an ash. It very much depends upon what was combusting and how far the combustion has gone as to what the chemical make up of that char will be. It could also be slightly different make ups depending upon the heat of the combustion. It isn't so simple as to be just pure carbon left over. Pure carbon will go to carbon dioxide in a complete combustion and you will get no char at all. You mean like an intumescent paint? Look up 'Intumescent Paints' on the internet and read about them. What are you asking?
  3. Actually I mentioned my lack of publications to a postdoc from our group who became a lecturer at our Uni a few years later. He said he'd seen my name on some papers that came out of the group after I left. I hope that was the case, but I never found them from searching the net. I might get back to him to see what they were. In any case - wasn't relevant to my career path in industry.
  4. Most common ones. To what temperature? What state of carbon? (in a polymer ((if so which)) or as graphite, bucky balls or carbon?) Carbon will react with oxygen and enough heat to form carbon dioxide - basically it burns. Most carbon based polymers (unless they contain phosphorous or other FR functional groups) will burn. I think graphite is more 'resistant' to heat and fire but will burn to CO2 at the right temperature. You could write an entire essay, or a book even, answering your questions. Can you be more specific?
  5. I think it's more relevant if you want to go into academia. If you go and work in industry I doubt they will care about publications. I penned a couple of papers and gave them to my Ph.D. supervisor when I was doing mine. He retired soon after I graduated and he never submitted them for publications. I didn't really care as I was always headed for industry rather than lecturing or academic research. Looking back, maybe I should have pushed him to get on with it and get me published. It has made no difference for me personally, but would probably look bad if I wanted to post doc somewhere.
  6. you can 'guess' indeed - but without further feedback there is no way of knowing. I think that only MichelleAna can tell us that for sure. Although I think you might be correct in thinking that Phi has guessed right... it is still speculation until the OP clears up what their needs are. She might want a hot water bottle (they are reusable)... I feel Phi probably has it, but it isn't clear and it is impossible to know without clarification.
  7. Both - but just because it works doesn't make it 'the best'. Only OP can tell us what the needs are for his water bottle.
  8. For what particular use? You get different types for different purposes. Without knowing what you want it for 'the best' one can't be prescribed.
  9. Not if it weighed 100lb and is used as water bottle for long distance runners. It depends on the specified use of the bottle.
  10. I guess that 'more peaceful' doesn't equate to 'no violence' as you yourself postulated. I think Bonobos greet each other with sex like we do a handshake. Friends, sisters, mothers, daughters etc... they all put out to each other and live more peaceful lives. I don't know if this helps or not - I don't have time to read it right now: http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/bonobo/behav
  11. "I think about it every night and day, spread my wings and fly away" Neither does anyone else who is in their right mind - did you read the OP?
  12. For sports, for survival, for desert conditions, rock climbing for hamsters, for cyclists, for walking around town? You can get different ones for different purposes.
  13. I don't want to go off topic either but it seems relevant to this as an example of the training people who work in hospitals get. An old friend of mine got a job as a cleaner in the operating theatres after surgery at a nearby hospital. He said he was appalled at the fact he had absolutely no training for the job. They just gave him a mop and some other equipment and some disinfectant and told him to just scrub around. He went to his bosses and suggested what he thought was a good cleaning schedule... getting into corners and asking if he should have a certain cleaning schedule and to see if there was anything he HAD to know to do the job that he had not been told. He asked what disinfectants to use and where and what to clean to avoid the spread of super bugs etc. How should he clean the operating table. He also told them he was concerned about lack of training of the cleaners and their lack of awareness regarding superbugs and the cleaning of surgical theatres (they were just cleaners - not trained to clean medical kit). In the end they suggested he should become the cleaning supervisor and actually provide the training himself for all of the other cleaners (presumably because he seemed to know a lot about superbugs and thought there should be training in place for cleaners of important areas like the theatre and the solitary wards and things). He walked out in disgust after saying that he could not train anyone at all as he'd received no formal training himself. Being honest - I think he should have taken the job and taught himself - he is always reading about stuff and self learning. He knew more than they did.
  14. Yea - I am fine with all that - I was wondering why the OP thought it was important. Even if it could be speeded up somehow so that you have 'instant' immunity with a single hypospray shot I can't see the need for it outside of a Sci Fi novel. Vaccines are a prevention not a cure. Surely it doesn't matter if it takes 10 minutes or 10 days for the immunity to take effect. Sorry - I must have been in a clicky mood yesterday afternoon and I have seemed to have used up all of my likes for the 24 hour period +1 in spirit or until I'm back on line with a full clip again. ;-)
  15. Your opinion is welcome to me. I get what are saying. I actually liked the main female characters in the book - although I think I am not as well read around the rest of the genre as you are, which is maybe why I liked this series so much (My experience of sci fi is pretty much Tolkien and Black Library Warhammer books when it comes to reading - I usually prefer to watch a film or box set). I see why you stopped at book 9 though... there are 3 or 4 book (7 to 10?) that do drag and don't seem to progress the story very well. It get frustrating that he leaves sub plots unresolved for one or even two books before picking them up again. Maybe I found the first one of his a little clumsy... but I think he started to own it by the last one. I thought the last book was done really well. Looking into it he tried to follow Jordan's writing plans as closely as he could and some of it had already been drafted. When I posted the OP I'd just finished the last book and was excited about it and possibly over rated it in my enthusiasm... although I know people that are WAY more into it than I. Did you read the last book - A Memory of Light? I think Sanderson done a brilliant job of finishing the series in that last book. It's a wonder that Nynaeve has any hair left at all after the first few books. lol. Reading around some fan pages of it she is one of the least liked characters... she was one of my fav's. Being honest I only read it because my ex wife used to gush over it so much - my marriage would have been even shorter had I not read it I think. ;-) Whatever people think about it I take joy seeing someone else so enthralled in something - she was almost obsessed with it and read it over and over... she must be on her 5th run through of it at least. :-/ It was sweet to hear her getting so excited about each new book that came out.
  16. Read the replies from Studiot and CharonY. and Also - I'll ask again, why the perceived need to speed up the intake by a few minutes? What benefit is there from having the vaccine act instantly or over a period of an hour or 2 or even a day?
  17. ..and even if it did - what would be the benefit? I don't think the speed in which it takes effect from injection to immunity has ever been an issue, or at least it isn't now.
  18. For what benefit? The receiver of the vaccine has been unvaccinated for their whole life - what benefit would getting into the system 40 mins quicker bring?
  19. Although some are taken via tablet I think some might still be administered via injection. I guess a tablet is less invasive, more hygienic, less painful etc.. Although - I don't see how 40 mins is going to make a difference - it is a prevention rather than a cure. Most people my age in the UK have a little round scar on the outside of their left arm from vaccinations given by injection at school. Some were sugar pills soaked in the vaccine and others were injections. Some children are traumatised by injections.
  20. You don't even need two hands. Especially if you have ever played the piano.
  21. Because they are pressure waves not electromagnetic. They propagate through the air... of which there is none in a vacuum.
  22. DrP


    I do not know for sure... but I used to know a kid who had a white patch in his hair and his parents did not, so that would suggest so.
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