Duda Jarek

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I was thinking about even more SF ultimate power source: stimulated proton decay  nearly complete matter > energy transition, ~100x higher energy density than fusion from any matter.
While they search for proton decay in room temperature water pools, it is hypothesized e.g. for baryongenesis (more matter than antimatter just after Big Bang), or Hawking radiation (baryons > black hole > massless radiation)  situations with extreme conditions, so I would search for it e.g. in the centers of neutron stars just before collapse to black hole, colliders like LHC (to test if it happens would need a dedicated experiment).
E.g. to explain orders of magnitudes brighter objects than allowed by standard explanations like "Bizarre object 10 million times brighter than the sun defies physics, NASA says" from https://www.space.com/bizareobject10timesbrighterthansun
If possible, it would mean proton is a very deep but local minimum of field configuration  maybe it could be "swing out" of this minimum e.g. with some precise sequence of laser pulses?
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In halo nuclei there are stably (milliseconds) bind neutrons/protons in much larger distances ... but we are still talking about a few femtometers.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halo_nucleus
http://theor.jinr.ru/~ntaa/17/files/lectures/Ershov.pdf
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Being able to build gamma laser ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gammaray_laser ), fusion could be trivial  e.g. 782 keV photons to reverse neutron decay: producing free neutrons from hydrogen.
However, it is technically extremely difficult, for free electron lasers maybe 30keV might be reachable, here is 14.4keV for nuclear transition: https://journals.aps.org/prresearch/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.L032007
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Talk about such potential more symmetric enhancement of quantum computers allowing to attack NP problems ( https://arxiv.org/pdf/2308.13522 , slides ) :
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Separate paper about such 2WQC: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/372677599_Twoway_quantum_computers_adding_CPT_analog_of_state_preparation
As stimulated emissionabsorption are CPT analogs, creating negativepositive radiation pressure ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pressure#Radiation_pressure_from_momentum_of_an_electromagnetic_wave ), we can imagine (unidirectional) ring laser as a pump.
Below is such hydrodynamical analog  in pump with fluid running in circles, flow to split down is reduced by negative radiation pressure.
The question to test is if it also true for ring laser: if intensity from beam splitter down is changed by opening/closing the shutter?
If so, a bit more complex setting would lead to twoway quantum computers.
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Optical pulling allows to pull in optical tweezers, negative radiation pressure to pull solitons  some hypothetical application: 2WQC (twoway quantum computers) maybe solving NP problems (standard 1WQC might be bounded with e.g. Shor, Grover).
I would gladly discuss and generally am searching for collaboration in these topics, especially access to ring laser to test if it allows for negative photon pressure, what is required e.g. by CPT symmetry.
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In CPT perspective the absorption equation would act on CPT(target on the left), what means emission equation acts on it in standard perspective (no CPT).
This equation work only if there are excited atoms: N_2 > 0, hence we can use e.g. a lamp here continuously excited in corresponding spectrum  usually deexciting in isotropic way, opening the shutter additionally with the emission equation  increased probability of deexciting toward the laser, what would be seen as reduced intensity by detectors around.
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Looking at the diagram, absorption equation applies to the central and right targets (shifted behind right mirror), the emission equation to the central  the question is if also to the left (shifted behind left mirror).
From CPT perspective the equations would switch, the absorption equation would apply to CPT(central target) and to CPT(target on the left)  the latter means without CPT the emission equation would apply to the target on the left.
While <E x H>/c radiation pressure can be negative (e.g. https://scholar.google.pl/scholar?q=negative+radiation+pressure ), turns out there are lots of optical pulling experiments, beside optical tweezers awarded with 2018 Nobel Prize, here is good summary: https://opg.optica.org/oe/fulltext.cfm?uri=oe3122665&id=525052
QuoteAbout 10 years ago, optical pulling force (i.e. optical tractor beam) emerged [10–12] as an attractive and popular concept, not only because the counterintuitive feature but also the profound mechanism underneath and promising applications. In the recent several years, a variety of optical pulling schemes have been proposed mainly based on the physics of momentum transfer and energy transfer. On the one hand, as for the momentum transfer path, Bessel beams were proposed to pull elongated objects [13] and core–shell structures [14,15]. Fernandes et. al. reported an optical pulling using chiral light [16]. Enhancement of optical pulling force was reported using optically bound structures [17]. Optical pulling in a periodic photonic crystal background was reported, which was originated from the selfinduced backaction of the object to the selfcollimation mode [18]. Longrange optical pulling of nanoparticle based on Bessel beam was achieve by simultaneously using several novel and compatible mechanisms [19]. Optical pulling mechanism via engineering the topology of light momentum in the background was also reported [20]. Besides, optical pulling can be also realized using the fluidic drag force and metamaterials (the so called “metatweezers”) that have provided numerous opportunities in compact multifunctional optical manipulations, such as trapping, transporting, sorting and imaging [21,22]. On the other hand, optical pulling based on photon energy transfer also appear with the assistance of surrounding medium including gas and liquid, in which the photophoresis induced optical pulling is a significant scheme. Photophoretic force discovered by Ehrenhaft has been widely used in optical manipulation [4,23,24]. When an absorptive object is irradiated by inhomogeneous light, asymmetrical temperature distribution is created, and then hot side will give a larger recoiling force than the cold side originated from the thermal motion of medium molecules. In rough comparison, the Photophoretic force imparted by the gas molecules is c/3υ times greater than the radiation pressure originated from the photon momentum transfer, where c is the speed of light and υ is the gas molecular velocity [25]. Shvedov et. al. achieved longrange polarizationcontrolled laser pulling of goldcoated hollow glass spheres [26]. Zhang et. al. demonstrated a new principle of the laserinduced hammerhit vibration of a micronsized black sphere in liquid glycerol [27]. Lu et. al. reported lightinduced pulling and pushing of micro gold plate by the synergic effect of optical force and photophoretic force [28]. Up to now, based on the physics of momentum transfer and energy transfer, various optical pulling of small objects at the micronano scale have been demonstrated. However, optical pulling of a macroscopic object is challenging and is rarely reported.
Seems all of them is pulling of objects with light, while ring laser should have related by different  pulling of photons, negative photon pressure, external stimulated emission.
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6 minutes ago, swansont said:
No. With the t reversal, the excited atom in the target emits a photon.
Exactly, excited target usually deexcite in isotropic way, due to laser should additionally accordingly to the stimulated emission equation on the left  negative radiation pressure should increase probability of deexcitation in this direction, reducing monitored intensity seen by detectors around this target.
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By "CPT(target on the left)" I have meant with applied all 3 symmetries.
Or let us look from perspective of of radiation pressure : <E x H>/c, if ring laser creates positive radiation pressure, from perspective after CPT doesn't it mean negative?
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From perspective after CPT symmetry the photons would travel toward CPT(target on the left)  if physics works the same after this symmetry, toward "minus time" this target would be excited accordingly to equation on the right, what toward "plus time" means it would be deexcited accordingly to the equation on the left ... if only it was excited in the first place like lamp: N_2 > 0.
As ring laser causes "positive radiation pressure" in one direction, from perspective after CPT it means causing "negative radiation pressure".
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Also, pulling with photons is done e.g. by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_tweezers
EM radiation pressure is <E x H>/c ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pressure#Radiation_pressure_from_momentum_of_an_electromagnetic_wave )  doesn't have to be positive.
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Turns out there is considered "negative radiation pressure"  predicted for solitons, searched e.g. for mechanical waves on graphene: https://scholar.google.pl/scholar?q=negative+radiation+pressure ... so the question is if it could be realized with EM waves, photons using lasers?
On 6/25/2023 at 8:18 PM, swansont said:The target on the left doesn’t get any photons. Why do you think it gets photons under time reversal?
Because believing in CPT symmetry, from its perspective photon trajectories would be reversed, the target on the left would be "standard target" to which we "push photons" (absorption equation), what from perspective without CPT would mean emission equation, "pulling photons", "negative radiation pressure".
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The T transform here reverses photon direction, making the laser cause excitation of target on the left, what means causing deexcitation without T symmetry.
Look at the two equations (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stimulated_emission#Mathematical_model )  to which of 3 targets they apply?
The equation on the right applies to the central and right target.
The equation on the left applies to the central target  my point is it also symmetrically applies to the target on the left  because in perspective after CPT symmetry the equations are switched.
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The CPT theorem says that looking at setting from perspective after CPT symmetry, it should be governed by the same physics.
For the discussed setting with asymmetric light source, in perspective after CPT symmetry the two target would be switched, laser would increase the number of excited atoms in the target on the left  toward negative time, what means decrease toward positive time.
In other words, it should stimulate emission from this target  not only when it is the central pumped crystal, but also when it is shifted left.
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To observe the dN_2/dt = B rho N_2 evolution, we need N_2 > 0 initial excitation of the target  e.g. gas discharge lamp.
Its continuously excited atoms normally deexcite in isotropic way, the laser should additionally increase probability of directional deexcitation  what would be seen by detectors around, watching isotropic radiation, by reduction of seen light intensity.
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Mathematically, we have the two equations (from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stimulated_emission#Mathematical_model ), after CPT they would be switched: the right one (absorption equation) would apply to the target on the left, what without CPT means the emission equation should apply to the target on the left.
In other words, while laser causes absorption by target on the rights ("push photons" there"), CPT symmetry says it has to also cause emission by target on the left ("pull photons" from there)  if only N_2 > 0: satisfied condition of being excited in the first place, e.g. lamp.
To my knowledge, existence of such effect was not tested yet (?)  negative result would mean macroscopic violation of CPT symmetry, positive would lead to lots of new possibilities/applications.
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From perspective after CPT symmetry, you would cause excitation of atoms of target on the left, what means causing deexcitation in perspective without CPT  sure polarized beam would mean pumping/unpumping one polarity, there should be also unpolarized settings, e.g. using free electron laser, wiggler/undulator, synchrotron radiation.
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CPT violation would be not seeing this looking unknown effect required by CPT symmetry  that as we "push photons" to the target on the right, we should also symmetrically "pull photons" from the target on the left  because from perspective after CPT transform, we would "push photons" to this target.
I also suspect this effect is true, but it needs experimental confirmation  if positive, it would open lots of new possibilities, applications. E.g. in case of low probability nuclear transition producing characteristic gammas, we could "pull them" this way e.g. with free electron laser  hopefully stimulating this nuclear transition.
In case of negative result: preparing setting able to see effect on expected level but not seeing it, would mean violation of CPT symmetry on macroscopic level  that macroscopic setting does not work the same in perspective after CPT symmetry. Such credible negative result should also inspire further experiments  improving on potential limitations, searching for the scale where CPT starts being violated and its mechanisms.
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Indeed stimulate the target to emit/deexcite, like pulling photons out of it  suggested by symmetry (T/CPT) ... if possible could lead to lots of new applications, e.g.:
 new calculation possibilities e.g. for quantum computing,
 low probability nuclear transitions  if they produce some characteristic gammas, then they could be stimulated by such caused deexcitation  these high energy photons are available e.g. in free electron lasers, wigglers/undulators in synchrotron ... also in standard laser setting using above Einstein's equation. Which nuclear transitions would be the most interesting, practical?
 similarly for chemistry  probably useful for many technological processes ...
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To test application of the emission formula for the target on the left, it needs to be initially excited  e.g. a lamp.
In this case it would deexcite in isotropic way  the question to test is if there is additional deexcitation caused by the laser, what would be seen by detectors around: in this case getting a lower power of light.
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The polarization might be interesting to try to use it to stimulate deexcitation of one polarization of atoms, what might allow e.g. for CPT analogue of state preparation for quantum computing.
The basic test is for nonpolarized target: if the formula on the left applies also to the target on the left, as suggested by CPT symmetry switching the targets. The main difficulties of such test is requirement of high N_2/N excited population, and that the asymmetry is imperfect  some percentage of photons travel in the opposite direction, exciting our target.
1 minute ago, swansont said:The stimulated deexcitation can happen with the laser causing the excitation. It’s why a twolevel system can’t have more than 50% of the atoms in an excited state.
And since deexcitation requires that the atom be in an excited state, the situations aren’t the same.
You are writing about the central target (pumped crystal)  to which both equations apply. The question is about the left/right targets  CPT symmetry suggests both should have corresponding formula.
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Here is another perspective on the ring laser setting using formulas from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stimulated_emission
There are two (Einstein's) formulas  for absorption it applies to the central target (pumped crystal), and the standard target on the right.
The symmetric emission formula is considered only for the central target.
However, in perspective after CPT symmetry the targets and equations would switch  hence emission formula should also symmetrically apply to the target on the left  stimulate its deexcitation (if satisfying condition of being excited).
Some potential applications of such suggested by CPT symmetry stimulated deexcitation, intuitively "pulling of photons":
 low probability nuclear transitions  if they produce some characteristic gammas, then they could be stimulated by such caused deexcitation  these high energy photons are available e.g. in free electron lasers, wigglers/undulators in synchrotron ... also in standard laser setting using above Einstein's equation. Which nuclear transitions would be the most interesting, practical?
 similarly for chemistry  probably useful for many technological processes (which ones?).
 maybe stimulated proton decay  ultimate energy source: complete matter > energy transition, ~100x energy density than fusion from any matter. Violation of baryon number is required e.g. by baryogenesis, Hawking radiation. They cannot observe it in room temperature water, but maybe it is a matter of proper conditions, like pulling photons of characteristic energies by some powerful free electron laser? Could use normal laser setting.
 ?
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Deexcitation is time/CPT reversal, analogue of excitation  here caused by the action of laser.
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Masers instead lasers for nuclear fusion (I asked Bard)
in Physics
Posted · Edited by Duda Jarek
Indeed "baryons > black hole > massless Hawking radiation" could be one way to realize stimulated proton decay ... but if this one is possible, there might be also other e.g. more direct ways, like using sequence of laser pulses to directly "swing out" proton from local minimum field configuration.