# John Cuthber

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1. ## How big is big?

Why do you want to put gelatine down an HPLC?
2. ## Glass and Temperature

If I get a piece of glass rod and clamp it vertically, (held at the top) then heat it in the middle eventually, when the glass melts, it will snap in 2 under its own weight. I bet that's not what "hello help100" had in mind, but it does show that the temperature may have an effect. My guess is that he's on about shattering glass by heating it quickly. The problem is that taking ordinary glass and quencing it in liquid nitrogen will shatter it too. You could say that it breaks at roughly minus two hundred degrees. With some types of glass like fused quartz it's practically impossible to shatter them this way. With other glasses it's quite easy.
3. ## Formaldehyde in Beer

I thought the body's acetate pool was turned over pretty fast. Anyway, measuring traces of formaldehyde in beer would be easy enough in a lab but (at least as far as I can see) rather difficult at home. I can't see why on earth anyone would add something to their product that would make people like it less. Beer doesn't go off so long as you keep the dirt out of it so I can't see HCHO as a preservative- you would need quite a lot anyway and the stuff would be undrinkable. What's your friend's evidence for the addition of formaldehyde to beer?
4. ## Glyphosate question

The nerve gases are orgoanophophates.
5. ## On concentration notation M/500?

I don't see what the big deal is. Mathematically 0.001 is the same as 1/1000, so 0.001 M is the same as 1/1000 M Since multiplication gives the same answer whichever way round you do it 1/1000 M is the same as M X 1/1000. Multiplication by 1 does nothing so you can leave it out and get M/1000
6. ## Transparant Heating Elements !

"closest thing i've found is the italian trade organization" Close but this is the sort of stuff I meant. "http://www.ocioptics.com/ito.html"
7. ## To reduce fat from body

"I don't want to be a spelling nazi" Then don't. I think the lemon juice might be as irritating as the Epsom salt. Anyway, I can't see this working.
8. ## Transparant Heating Elements !

I know how hot you can run glass. I wondered about the ITO.
9. ## Transparent aluminum

Al is relatively transparent to X rays. Thin layers of Al are transparent to ordinary light (and are used as beamsplitting mirrors). Al2O3 (corundum, btw; carborundum is SiC) is transparent to, not just visible light, but quite a long way into the UV and IR as well. I will be impressed by the plasic with a better strength to weight ratio at say, 400C. What was the original question meant to mean?
10. ## Transparant Heating Elements !

Does anyone know what the upper temperature limit for ITO on glass is?
11. ## Density of water decreases with decreasing temperature. Why?

Gallium and tin are probably the 2 commonest (after water) things that expand on freezing. The answer involves the lattice formed from water, being held together by relatively weak hydrogen bonds, has quite big gaps between the molecules. When it melts the molecules can slip into those gaps.(And I'm afraid I haven't a clue why Ga and Sn do this, it may be related to the fact that they have unusually long liquid ranges)
12. ## Tell me Honey is pure or .....

I can't see how that would work. There's a compound found in most sugar syrups used to adulterate honey called hydroxymethy furfural, that isn't naturally present in honey.
13. ## Florescent bulb

What are you on about? Ever heard of a high pressure mercury lamp? They have relatively large amounts of mercury in them and they work quite well at producing UV light. Anyway, as has been said, the little Hg in an ordinary lamp isn't a problem. If it's an old enough lamp then the Be in the phosphor might be.
14. ## Pigments for Plastics

Probably too late to be any use but here it is. Carbon Black works according to this. http://www.cabot-corp.com/cws/businesses.nsf/234648fdcbb818db85256c2e007a6a22/fdbb31882f4001cc85256c7a0050228f/\$FILE/Molded.pdf#search=%22carbon%20black%20pigment%20ABS%22
15. ## toxicity of phenol

OK, It's been a while so I apologise for bumping this but... If this quote about Lister "He also made surgeons wear clean gloves and wash their hands before and after operations with 5% carbolic acid solutions. Although it should be noted that he first persuaded Robert Goodyear to manufacture rubber gloves for his nurse since the carbolic acid caused her to suffer from contact dermatitis. Instruments were also washed in the same solution and assistants sprayed the solution in the operating theatre. One of his conclusions was to stop using natural porous materials in manufacturing the handles of medical instruments." from wiki is right then Lister was using 5% phenol, that's 50g/litre. Last time I checked 50,000mg/L was not 5 times as concentrated as 100 mg/L. I apologise for underestimating the difference- the stuff Noty was talking about is 500 times more dilute.
16. ## Ester Experiments :)

What would you want that for? It's not the easiest of syntheses because you would need to break a P-O bond.
17. ## DNA Break Up

I think that procedure probably gives reasonably clean nucleic acid- certainly if there were a lot of trash in it, it wouldn't be a stringy goo like DNA. I think it's not too dificult to hydrlyse DNA to its constituents. Enzymatic hydrolysis would be neatest but I think a strong base would do.
18. ## What is difference between Rate Law and Law of mass action??? help

The rate law applies to the speed of reaction. The law of mass action applies to the extent of the reactiuon.
19. ## toxicity of phenol

IIRC the carbolic acid that Lister used in the pioneering days of antisepsis was 1% phenol ie about 100 times more concentrated than the solution you are using. Since his patients (and the doctors) survived spraying it around, I think it's fair to say that you don't need to worry too much. Of course, as with all toxic chemicals, it's prudent to keep exposure low.
20. ## Phospor that glows under infrared exposure ?

"And seems the nasty habit of naming things wrong as "phosphors" when there is no phosphor at all strikes again. " OK, what do you think a phosphor is?
21. ## Can animals sense earthqukes?

"I wonder if alot of these animals generally seek shelter when they hear low frequency sound, as associated with thunderstorms, and this helps them deal with earthquakes by coincidence." If you are a cow and there is a thunderstorm you are in trouble. You can't rely on going into a nice steel framed building (certainly across evolutionary timescales you can't) and you don't really want to stand under a tree. If there's a wood then going into it and hoping you aren't under the tree that gets hit would be good. Going down hill would also be better than uphill. If you are a cow that knows an earthquake is comming your best bet is to stand in the open (so nothing lands on you); this would be sucidal in a thunderstorm. If it's going to create a tsunami then you really want to go up hill rather than down. The behaviour that would be adaptive for (relatively common) thunderstorms would be ill advised if there's a (relatively rare) earthquake. Btw, what's all this rubbish about 5 senses? You can close your eyes and touch your nose with your index finger. You cant hear, see, taste smell or feel it coming- how can you do this? How do you know when your bladder is full or when you are hungry? People have a lot more than 5 senses. It's entirely reasonable that cattle and other animals sense the oncoming earthquake. It's also possible that after an earthquake people think "That's odd, my dog was acting strange just before the quake; he must have known it was comming." Of course, the dog might have known that next door's bitch was on heat. Coincidences like that keep the psycics and astrologers in business.
22. ## Double decomposition : CaSO4 & MgSO4

IRIC CaSO4 is slightly soluble and CaCO3 is rather less so. It might be possible to convert CaSO4 into CaCO3 by boiling it with excess Na2CO3 (this trick works with PbSO4). That would give Na2SO4 (very impure because of the Na2CO3) and CaCO3 (which is easily dissolved with acetic or hydrochloric acids).
23. ## Question about bicarbonate of soda

I wouldn't go for putting KOH in the cabbage. Many odours are caused by acidic materials and laso a lot of materials get oxidised by air more readily when they are in alkaline conditions- this might also get rid of the smell.
24. ## Ester Experiments :)

Re KMnO4 and methanol- "just mix the two, maybe heat a little. i dont think heat is required. you'll end up with a precipitate. just gravity filter" I don't think that's a good idea. Mixing solutions of the 2 in water is a safer bet.
25. ## obtaining petroleum ether

Butane isn't the stuff I had in mind. There are lighters that run on petrol- highly refined petrol at that- called "lighter fluid". There are also lighters that use butane. AFAIK zippo don't do butane lighters.
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