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Everything posted by khaled

  1. great, because I've three papers in proceedings currently .. one about a proposed model based on markov chains in statistics, one about proposing a graph model for twitter, and proposing an algorithm for users connectivity, and one last paper on combinatorics .. I've worked in a group of theory scientists back in college, they told me that what matters is the research you write, not who you are My favorite scientist is Godel, I'm reading a book about his life .. I'm working on a huge research in my fav field, mathematical logic .. wish me luck
  2. you have to mention THEN closure, because your opinion is only obvious to you. I can copy what Wikipedia says about AI, but in a discussion we talk about a specific thing, that is a "brain computer interfacing" I'd rather translate as "Intelligent Assistant", and since my deeper interest lies in philosophy .. I went to early questions such as Turing Test. This is computer science forums, and that's why I'm limiting this to Mathematical Logic and Computer, If you want to discuss this matter on the philosophical side, you are welcome. I'm neither supposed to write everything in AI, nor to speak about information sources .. despite the fact that you are now attacking me, out of 3 pages full of nonsense .. can we land upon the shore of understand ? ------------------- Speaking about what you need, there are many approaches: - Finite State Machine (Automata) - Game Theory (Decidability & Satisfiability) - Complex Fuzzy Systems (Fuzzy Logic) - Neural Networks (Neurology) .. each approach has its advantages, and disadvantages
  3. You might not understand the formal proof, because they don't mention all details, here is a simple proof: ProofWiki:Cook-Levin
  4. unlike machines, humans do not need the obvious THEN closure .. are you expecting me to provide you an algorithm on how to ask me a question on the presented subject ?
  5. Greetings, I'm a theoretical computer scientist .. and I think that this post has been driven into a discussion between philosophy and psychology An intelligent computer interface is under development currently in the AI field Turing test is an important concept in this matter, you might wonder why or how because simply, if an observer cannot know the human from the machine given both output, then the machine pass the test but a machine that can pass turing test on any input does not exist, according to incompleteness anyway, If you have any questions on how an intelligent interface is done, its approaches, or how do we make the machine actually "think"
  6. Your post, reformatted: There are three types of cryptography in general: - Public Key (2 mutual keys) Cryptography for small amount of data - Symmetric (1 key for all) Cryptography for huge amounts of data - Stenography: to hide data within media (image, sound, video, ..) based on your choice, there are many crypto libraries in all programming languages
  7. I'm a theoretical computer scientist (24 years old), my inspiration are Godel, Turing, Post I agree that one will always be learning along his life I have noticed that SFN forum does not have resident expert in Theoretical Computer Science, neither a sub-form for that I can't either ask others to consider me at that point, since I don't have a real degree on that .. I have one question: do I have to have a PhD to write a research, for example do I have to have a PhD in mathematics to propose a new statistical model ?
  8. N-SAT problem is NP-Complete, the Binary-SAT problem is its simple version Cook-Levin theorem is very important, because it doesn't only prove that n-SAT is an NP problem .. but also it proves that any NP problem can be reduced in a pynomial time to a finite turing machine with boolean satisfaction problem
  9. I think the question was about mastering the practice, just the coding part ...
  10. 1. the first level is where you learn how to make a program 2. the second is where you create one 3. the third is when you create one from a design 4. the fourth is when you try to understand a program written by someone else (with no comments) 5. the final level is when you can take an open-source software, read its documentation, and do some modification You might not understand why we use those five levels, but knowing how to write a program in C++ is not something we can measure like that ... You may notice that the first & second levels are actually the learning stage simply, you go with the third when it's professional, the fourth one means you have mastered that language, but the final one means you're a guru Think it's that simple, try to look at one of GNU open-source projects
  11. Natural Speech Recognition, Text-to-Speech Synthesis, Model Theory, Logic, Artificial Intelligence It's still early, but in the future there will be cyborgs, a cyborg is a robot that have conciseness
  12. wanna be amazed, try calling Apple Customer Service .. it will recognize if you say "I have a problem with my iPhone" or "where can I repair my iPhone", Also, there is Siri on the new iPhone which understand your questions, such as "do I need to wear a coat for tomorrow ?", and else the new iTv offers a new type of remote control with no buttons, you just have to say "put channel number 222", or "find me an american action movie", and so
  13. If you start with C++ as your first programming language (as I've done) .. Learning any other programming language can be done in a day If C++ looks too hard to be learned as a first language, I suggest trying BASIC (not VB.net) Take an advice from an open-source contributed who've worked on many programming languages, On the long scale, I suggest learning C++ (general, assembled), Java (platform-independent, interpreted), and PHP (build dynamic website\web-service) and (optionally Objective-C, and C#)
  14. Speech Recognition in general, in the past it was based on rule-based systems Since late 90s, probabilistic methods has emerged using Hidden Markov Models to study order-regarding similarity between input and data, to infer a feasible expectation A Hybrid system is the ultimate goal, but it's the most difficult to build
  15. check: SOE|UCSC:BME110-Lecture3
  16. No, how data is represented will never make the algorithm design any harder .. you simply represent things differently, and you can any algorithm with your encoding system, you just need to build functions that support this encoding system, you will use the same algorithm, except when the comparison comes, instead of doing if ( x == y ) you will define a new function that compare two symbols\blocks in your encoding system just like this if ( equal (x, y) ) .. simple enough ?
  17. Huda, I've helped many academic students, there are people who are looking for a solution for their problem, and there are people who, offered different solutions, insist on making things worse ... And not just that you left offered solutions, but also you took unrelated issues into your research .. you are analyzing users' behaviors, you have your own data, you are going to do Sequence Alignment .. why do you keep taking DNA and amino acids into your problem, making things worse by encoding trying to encode you data using amino acid alphabet ... The other noted problem, is that you confuse both encoding your data, and how sequence alignment is going to work on encoded data, if your data is encoded such that your alphabet is [1, 11000], and if we encode 100 = [gttcaag], & 99 = [gttcaaa] you don't do comparison between every bit of each symbol, you can't compare 'g' to 'a' in the above example, because the whole block is a single symbol ! it's an atom that cannot be considered part-by-part, but as a whole .. so, we have that [math]100 \neq 99 \; \Rightarrow \; [gttcaag] \; \neq \; [gttcaaa][/math] remember, Sequence Alignment is not related to DNA, Queens problem did not come from chess, ...
  18. you know that you can represent your codes in a higher base: 11000 (base 10 ~5 symbols) = 2AF8 (base 16 ~4 symbols) = ANO (base 32 ~3 symbols)
  19. I'd write things in logic, if they are easier to be understood: [math]\{ \; Human \;\; errs \;\; \rightarrow \;\; Author \;\; errs \;\; \rightarrow \;\; Book \;\; errs \; \}[/math], my point was that not everyone can explain computational theories in a clear way ... No need for apologize, you don't have to qualify me either .. I know this much, because I'm a researcher in computer science, besides not only you formulate opinions from literature, how did I learn then .. and don't go far I wasn't speaking about the theory, I was speaking about how proper should it be explained to students ... thanks
  20. I'll say the same thing .. Automata cannot be in more than 1 state at the same time, The book used the phrase "to be in several states at once." which is disturbing to explain what "non-deterministic" means, which meaning was explained in a better manner in my previous post One example of a Non-deterministic Finite Automata (NFA) is Probabilistic Finite State Machine which can represent the transition between states for a system, the system itself cannot be in more than one state at the same time, otherwise it's quantum finite state machine, which represent the state transition tree that differs between the observer and the real state since the last observation, check: DFA, NFA, Probabilistic Finite State Machine, Quantum Theory, Reality Theory, Sound Theory Note: I didn't say the book statement was wrong, I just stated something different than what you presented, and [ 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · · ] = [ Σ N - (N+1) ] = [ Σ -1 ] = [math]-\infty[/math]
  21. There are two types of 3D photo\film taking, one is depth-realized 3D .. which need special camera for that, the full 3D for an object needs you to take 360 spherical degree set of shots, processed by a graphical algorithm to produce a 3D object on the computer ... what would be interesting, is that if we can actually capture reality during some time, so that we can tour inside those copies later, like if we can just visit paris from home
  22. Any computer scientists knows that algorithms are better to be kept simple enough, So, you can encode your data to be like a sequence like this: Let's say we want to analyze users behaviors in this science forum, on two levels: we have the set of actions, A = { (p)ost, ®eply, r(a)te, (u)pdate, (b)log, ©hat } and we consider actions to be taken on the time of the day (for example), T = { 1, 2, 3, .., 24 } A sequence is defined [math]Seq = \{ q_1, q_2, .., q_N \}[/math] such that [math]q_i \in \{ A \times T \}[/math] A sequence example of use X on one day is [ b1 b2 p6 r8 r9 r10 r11 u17 c20 c21 ] which is in detail: - user X blogged at time 1, 2 - user X posted at time 6 - user X replied at time 8, 9, 10, 11 - user X updated his status at time 17 - user X chatted at time 20, 21
  23. Deterministic means that there is only 1 possible path to take, decision to take Non-deterministic means there are more than 1 possible path to take, but Automata cannot be in more than 1 state at the same time, otherwise it's a Quantum Automata
  24. First: echo "<td><input type='checkbox' name='selection[]' value='$refnumber' /></td>"; name='selection[]' that's not a valid name in html, you can try name='selection$i' while $i changes inside the while: $i = 1; while ($a = pg_fetch_array($res)) { echo "<tr>\n"; echo "<td><input type='checkbox' name='selection$i' value='$refnumber' /></td>"; for ($j = 0; $j < pg_num_fields($res); $j++) { echo "<td>\n" . $a[$j] . "</td>\n"; } echo "</tr>"; $i++; } echo "<input type='hidden' name='num' value='$i' />"; and then you can read the data like this: <? $i = 1; while ($i <= $_POST['num']) echo "$i: ".$_POST['selection$i']." \n"; ?> .. good luck
  25. Let's make a simple example .. Consider the temperature of your city during the day, it continuously changing .. it's impossible to gain the continuous interval of it But you simply, for example, take the value of the temperature every hour for example, this means you have 24 samples per day you also keep other properties of the temperature, which will help you re-build the temperature change during that day, like, for example, the average mid-point between the discrete points, ..etc
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