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Posts posted by ercdndrs

  1. I know for a larger smoke bomb you can use an oxidising agent (like potassium nitrate) with and excess of carbon-containing fuel like sugar or flour, you want to add just enough oxidiser to keep the reaction going (and producing smoke, or unburned carbon). Personally I've never tried it exactly like this but it should work with a bit of toying with amount ratios etc.

  2. I'm pretty sure I'm not trying to make meth

    I have easier ways to get sodium nitrate... I was looking for NaOH but it turned out that the drain cleaner was actually a mixture of chemicals : /

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    NH4NO3 + NaHCO3 -> NaNO3 + NH4HCO3

  3. Huh, never knew that. How do dams produce greenhouse gases?


    Also, while I understand how big dam projects like the three gorges one in China (extinction of Chinese paddlefish?) will majorly screw up the surrounding ecosystems, smaller dams (I live downstream from one) don't seem to have that much of an impact.

  4. Hydroelectric has lots of environmental problems, from release of greenhouse gasses to environmental disruption. Most environmentalists are looking to decrease our use of hydroelectric from damns.


    Hm, yeah, coal burning plants are really that much better :doh:


    As far as I know the amount of greenhouse gases produced from hydro dams is negligible, and after the initial filling of the resevoir there really isn't much to complain about from the environmental point of view.

  5. That stuff's nasty, you really don't want to try that. Besides, you'd need to add the SO3 to sulphuric acid (it will explode if you put it in water). Also, to convert SO2 to SO3 you'd need a really hot catalyst (usually V2O5). Your best bet if you really want to synthesize it is to mix SO2 and pretty concentrated H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)

  6. If it's so great, why don't you give us an exerpt and then we can buy your book if we like it?


    Right now it sounds suspiciously like some trash science that gets made up to con regular people out of their money. If it is, I really don't think this is the right place to market it :)

  7. What if you also boiled the water also? Would it maybe not explode?


    Or, put it through a condenser

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    I'd like to know because I'm having a similar problem (acid with buffers) and would like some stuff that doesn't look like toilet water and, moreover, will give predictable reaction products.


    Also, not having my body covered in 300 degree sulphuric acid and glass shrapnel wounds would be nice :D

  8. Edit: apparently you can boil the sulfuric acid, as it closes in on 100% its BP increases up to 337C. So... from there you direct the hot acid into water where it will condense and you'll have pretty pure sulfuric acid (free of all that buffer junk that makes it useless x( )

  9. Yeah, light has momentum, I saw somewhere an experiment where a very powerful laser was shone onto a piece of foil; the foil was blown back like if instead of light, wind was coming out of the laser (to explain what it looked like). I can't find a specific site for this, though, so you'll just have to take my word for it.


    If wikipedia is to be believed, photons have a constant momentum. If a material absorbs a photon, the photon's momentum is transferred to the material. If a different material reflecs a photon, 2x it's momentum is transferred to the material (momentum is conserved)


    To quote Wikipedia: "Light (visible, UV, radio) is an electromagnetic wave and also has momentum. Even though photons (the particle aspect of light) have no mass, they still carry momentum. This leads to applications such as the solar sail. The calculation of the momentum of light is controversial (see Abraham–Minkowski controversy)."

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    Also, a photon has energy; if a photon was somehow stopped one would think it's energy would be converted to mass

  10. As far as I know there are little plates on the end of your bones from which new bone comes from. Once you hit your late teens those plates turn into regular bone, which means at 18 or so you stop growing. Taking HGH after the plates have hardened won't have much effect on your height. There may be, however, a hormone that reforms those growth plates, I don't know about that.

  11. The solution is still acidic because all of the zinc touching the HCl has turned into Zinc Chloride.


    Here's an analogy: say you have 20 nuts and 10 bolts. The nuts represent HCl, the bolts represent the zinc. Once you combine one nut and one bolt, that represents a zinc chloride. After you've combined all zinc with chlorine, the remaining HCl doesn't just disappear. It's still there, there's just nothing for it to react with.


    Soo.. the result is that you can make more zinc chloride :D

  12. In basic terms, heated KNO3 releases oxygen so that the sugar can be oxidised (burned) inside the rocket as opposed to using oxygen present in the atmosphere (which doesn't make for a very good rocket, does it? ;)). It also will contain more oxygen than the same volume of air.


    As for alternatives for Saltpeter or KNO3, try cold packs. Some cold packs contain sodium nitrate which has very similar properties to KNO3. However, most cold packs have either ammonium nitrate (that while being an oxidiser like KNO3 and NaNO3, won't work for a rocket) or urea which is useless as part of rocket fuel.


    Also for rocket fuel (slower burn) don't grind the fuel and nitrate too much or your rocket will accelerate apart instead of upwards ;)


    Hope this helped

  13. Hi, my name is Eric. I am very creative, as maybe you've noticed my screen name is my real name without vowels (except the e).


    I'm a 10th grader by trade... with a little hobby chemistry on the side (ie. pyrotechnics >:]). Jokes aside, I like experimenting with chemicals and trying to predict reaction products etc.

  14. Hi, I have some 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and I'd like to concentrate it to a more useful concentration. Right now I'm thinking of boiling off the extra water. I've read that at high concentrations of H2O2 decompose extremely exothermically when they're heated (resulting in a steam and very hot O2 explosion), and I've also heard that the peroxide is stabilised somewhat in an acidic environment. My three questions are:


    -What is a safe concentration to boil the peroxide to?


    -How will an acid affect the stability of the peroxide?


    -The only pure acid I have around is sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4). However, when I mix the peroxide and acid, I see bubbles. Do hydrogen peroxide and sodium bisulphate react, and what is the equation?


    - Does the acid serve to decompose the peroxide?


    2 H2O2 + NaHSO4 (aq) -> NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + O2


    - Or, does it produce sulphur dioxide gas and oxygen gas?


    H2O2 + 2 NaHSO4 (aq) -> Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + O2 + SO2



    Thanks for the help :)

  15. A little off the current topic here, but as far as firework colours go; potassium salts make a faint violet-like colour, and sodium salts make a orange-yellow that will drown out any other colour you have :(. Also, iron will make sparks that change in colour according to their temperature but are usually yellow.

  16. I'd like to make some hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid for an experiment, but unfortonately many of the methods I've read so far either use materials which I don't have access to, or are questionable as to whether or not they will work.


    I've put together a list of chemicals I DO have access to (not including regular household chemicals, like NaHCO3 and NaCl).


    -Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)

    -Sodium Bisulphate (NaHSO4)

    -Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)

    -Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    -Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)

    -Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (C3Cl2N3NaO3)

    -Ammonium Iron (III) Sulphate 12 Hydrate (NH4Fe(SO4)2)


    I also have a graphite rod that could be used as a fairly unreactive electrode.


    Finally, before people come at me with "You can buy those acids at the hardware store" etc, I've checked and no, I can't. Maybe it's because I live in Canada, or that my town has a population of 4000...:doh:


    Anyways, any (helpful) answer would be greatly appreciated. :)





    I've had some ideas and some of them I've seen on this site; I've written the reaction equations:


    NaCl + NaHSO4 + Heat -> HCl + Na2SO4


    2 CaCl2 + 2 NaHSO4 -> 2 CaSO4 + 2 NaCl + H2 + Cl2


    I've tried the second method by mixing the two salts in room temperature water, there were very small bubbles (hydrogen?) but no chlorine smell, and a white powder that wouldn't dissolve (CaSO4?). Although there was no Cl2 produced is it possible that the chlorine was simply dissolved in the water?


    Thanks :)

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