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Posts posted by NTuft

  1. On 4/3/2023 at 12:09 PM, Pádraig said:

    (Apologies if this is the wrong forum, couldn't find one I thought suited. It's technically homework, feel free to move if there's a better fit!)


    Hi all,


    I'm looking to do some mixing at home, and measuring with a viscometer. I'll be using tap water, and one other fluid, idealy with a viscosity that's a bit higher than it. Where's the best place I could purchase a fluid that's


    1) Reasonably cheap,

    2) Has a viscosity at least a small bit higher than water,

    3) Has its density and viscosity values available?

    The auto parts should have an additive more viscous than water with available data, which you could dilute, also available pre-mixed.

  2. On 4/7/2023 at 11:15 AM, swansont said:

    Paid for using a lawyer isn’t the issue here. Cohen was not convicted for being a lawyer. The issue is falsifying financial documents and not reporting the payments to the FEC.

    The Clinton payments were disclosed. Again, this information is readily available. Try and base your arguments on facts.


    on FEC forms, the Clinton campaign classified the spending as legal services.”

    (emphasis added)

    Trump did not disclose the payments, and falsified documents to cover it all up.

    It is the issue, because that's where I'm drawing the analogy. I recognize you disagree. The monies were not disclosed for their actual purpose, they were screened as legal fees. So far, the go-between in an extortion scheme and the deceptive reporter have been found in the wrong. I do not know about Cohen's case and yes I'm pleading ignorance. I'm not drawing an analogy between the Cohen and the Clinton campaign cases I'm drawing an analogy between Clinton's campaign paying Fusion GPS and Trump paying Stormy Daniels, obscuring what they were doing by vaguely billing legal fees--paying "fixers".

    On 4/8/2023 at 8:36 AM, Janus said:

    Did you miss the part where Mueller himself wrote to Barr to complain that Barr was understating the seriousness of the report. How can you say that Barr was correct, when the person who wrote the full report didn't think he was?

    I think Barr was giving his opinion, and the result of Mueller's report, despite his opinions, was no actionable fault finding. So I agree with Barr's opinion.

  3. 2 hours ago, swansont said:

    The details are readily available, so pleading ignorance isn’t very persuasive.

    What I'm arguing is that the research too was paid for using lawyers as a screen to pay a private company for campaign adjacent activities. It was improperly described precisely because they wanted what was oppo research to appear independent. The hush money was not disclosed because that's the point there, being extorted by two parties to silence their disclosures. Neither one was disclosed and both involved lawyers's fees as fronts to hide payments.


    Cohen pleaded guilty to violating federal campaign finance law in connection with the payments. Federal prosecutors say the payments amounted to illegal, unreported assistance to Trump’s campaign. But they declined to file charges against Trump himself. 
    Legal experts say a case could be made that Trump falsified business records by logging Cohen’s reimbursement for the Daniels payment as legal fees. But that’s only a misdemeanor under New York law — unless prosecutors could prove he falsified records to conceal another crime.
    The New York hush-money probe of Donald Trump explained

    So a smidgen more transparency with HC, it having been tied in and reported as part of the campaign's finances, whereas the two pay-outs for DT were mocked up as business deals--it being a campaign finance violation apparently is not sticking, as the charges are for fraudulent business practices. Some similarity if not entirely analogous. More to develop, thought, and from the AP article there is money going back and forth between Cohen and the Trump organization, which may muddy the waters.



    52 minutes ago, Janus said:

    WASHINGTON (CN) — BuzzFeed News was handed a partial victory from the D.C. Circuit on Tuesday when the federal appeals court ordered the Department of Justice to release additional information from the agency’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.

    The dispute is one of many involving the DOJ’s handling of the release of information related to the controversial two-year investigation by then-Special Counsel Robert Mueller.

    U.S. Circuit Judge Karen L. Henderson wrote in Tuesday's opinion that the portions of the Mueller report that the D.C. Circuit is ordering the government to unredact might not shine much light on anything new. 

    “The factual circumstances surrounding this portion of the investigation are already publicly available in the unredacted portions of the report,” the George W. Bush appointee wrote in the 18-page opinion, noting that the soon-to-be-released sections detail how Mueller “carried out his duties to investigate and prosecute criminal conduct.” 

    Still, Henderson said the disclosure would offer insight into how the DOJ “interpreted the relevant law and applied it to already public facts” before failing to find enough evidence to link former President Donald Trump or his campaign to any illegal activity. 

    Other information requested by the plaintiffs – the Electronic Privacy Information Center, which was not involved in the appeal, along with BuzzFeed and its senior investigative reporter Jason Leopold – will remain redacted. 

    According to Henderson, these sections will stay behind black ink because the people mentioned in them are not public figures and were not charged with crimes, and therefore retain a higher level of privacy.

    “The privacy interests relating to individuals investigated for but not charged with making false statements remain significant,” she wrote, before noting that the appeals court's own in-camera review suggested those details would be “highly stigmatizing.” 

    “We therefore conclude that their substantial privacy interests tip the scale in favor of nondisclosure for this category of material,” she added. 

    Henderson was joined on the unanimous three-judge panel by U.S. Circuit Judges David Tatel and Harry Edwards, appointed by Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter, respectively.  

    Leopold took to Twitter to celebrate the ruling, calling it a “massive win" and suggesting it would reveal new information about Donald Trump Jr.

    "Just a huge win for transparency and the public's right to know," he tweeted.

    A regular submitter of Freedom of Information Act requests and filer of lawsuits when those requests fail to be properly addressed, Leopold noted the uniqueness of an appeals court reversing in a case like this.

    “You just rarely see this kind of decision and they note the significant public interest behind it,” he said.

    Mark Schoofs, editor-in-chief of BuzzFeed News, similarly applauded the court’s decision, calling it a “huge legal victory both for BuzzFeed and champions of government transparency.”

    Attempts to reach the Department of Justice and the Electronic Privacy Information Center for comment were not returned by press time.

    Tuesday's ruling comes after several court battles hoping to peel back blank spots in the Mueller report.  

    The lower court’s order calling for an in-camera review came after then-Attorney General William Barr made public statements clearing Trump of any guilt prior to the report’s release. He said in part that the evidence Mueller gathered "does not establish that the president was involved in an underlying crime related to Russian election interference."

    But Mueller said in a letter following Barr's statement that his team reached the decision to not charge Trump for obstruction of justice in part due to thorny constitutional questions surrounding the indictment of a sitting president. He then went a step further and said that if the investigation had clearly shown Trump did not obstruct justice, he "would so state."

    "The inconsistencies between Attorney General Barr's statements, made at a time when the public did not have access to the redacted version of the Mueller report to assess the veracity of his statements, and portions of the redacted version of the Mueller report that conflict with those statements, cause the court to seriously question whether Attorney General Barr made a calculated attempt to influence public discourse about the Mueller report in favor of President Trump despite certain findings in the redacted version of the Mueller report to the contrary," U.S. District Judge Reggie Walton wrote in a 23-page opinion in March 2020.

    The case will now return to the lower court for Walton to order the release of the unredacted pages.

    Apparently Judge Walton made those statements because he was in the dark--he didn't think Barr could say what he did without having read the whole thing himself, which seems fair. The reporting here says that the portions that remained redacted, after having reviewed the whole report, were sections on people being investigated for false statements who hadn't done such, i.e. they were slandered at some point in.. whatever it was the Mueller probe was based on. Walton may've claimed that before he hadn't read the report, but that claim seems to have fizzled over time and by my read Barr was correct. That last bolded paragraph statement by Walton doesn't make a lot of sense--it's from the same 23-page order where he requested the unredacted report, and yet he's already claiming the redacted material is contrary to Barr's statements? Walton's claim fizzled out.

  4. 3 minutes ago, iNow said:

    Correct. The election law violations are coming from the state of Georgia, but just weren’t yet ready to have their day in court. NY was just ready to present their case sooner.

    There’s also then the federal issues with January 6 and too secret document stealing being pursued by special prosecutors.

    I heard there was a Federal attorney who resigned in Georgia rather than be strongarmed by what FPOTUS or his team were asking. And there was a call to Raffensberger IIRC trying to coerce votes or not certify the election.. Sorry, yeah I ought to read more on this. Again, if that issue with showing classified documents to donors or foreign nationals is real, that seems like the potential nail in the coffin.

  5. 13 hours ago, studiot said:

    Could the admins write a small routine to perform the same here perhaps dumping/delaying them to a mod queue as is already done for some posts.

    7 hours ago, TheVat said:

    I also wonder if more challenging security questions would help in the new user registration form....maybe just make registration a bit more work, not so much as to drive away real members but enough to make spammers not want to bother.

    Perhaps set new account registering pending approval. Maybe have some questions about science interests to screen for a human-esque reply. I don't think the forum is really burgeoning with new registrations(?), so it might be less work to approve members one by one if the spamming continues to be a problem.

  6. 4 hours ago, swansont said:

    The main difference being one was not reported and the other one was, but not properly described. So not really analogous, IMO

    Trump's lawyer used an LLC to make the payment, Clinton paid Perkins Coie to pay Fusion GPS. I don't know the details on what Cohen's said, so I don't see how it's related to campaign finance at this point, unless this business fraud is somehow tied together with campaign funds.

  7. On 4/5/2023 at 6:37 AM, Janus said:

    Back when this investigation started, the feds did step in and and told the New York to back off and they'd handle it. Of course that was back during the time that Bill Barr headed the DOJ.  The same Bill Barr that heavily redacted the Mueller report to shield Trump.  In other words: "We'll handle it meant, we'll make sure nothing is done about it.".

    The present DOJ has it hands full with the documents and Jan. 5th investigations, so I'm sure they fine with letting New York handle this one. 

    I don't recall Barr going out of his way to help Trump, but I don't have all those details. The DOJ has a lot of hands, some of them are busy continuing to shield likely Federal incitement of Jan. 6th, and 'deleting' communications about destroying evidence and violating client-attorney privilege by 'hiding' columns in spreadsheets, with said criminal evidence handed from prosecutors to defense then appallingly barred from admission save for one iota. The hush money payment looks analogous to the misdemeanor crime H.R. Clinton had to pay a fine on for financing the Steele Dossier.

    On 4/5/2023 at 7:08 AM, TheVat said:

    The potential RICO charge in Georgia seems like potentially the biggest one, in terms of raw criminality and of having incriminating evidence.  Or perhaps tied with the potential treason charge at Mar-a-Lago where he allegedly showed top secret documents to foreign visitors.  Those could bring some serious jail time.  

    (btw, anyone else have this weird urge to buy discount airline tickets?)


    So you think that'll be RICO-federal, or a GBI case? It looks like all 34 New York charges are on falsifying business records, and were bumped to felonies for being done in context of another crime. Unclear what that other crime is yet. DOJ pursuing Federal obstruction of justice charges related to non-compliance with document recovery at Mar-A-Lago. I'll have to look around for info on showing off secret documents to foreigners, that is a bombshell if true.

    On 4/5/2023 at 7:12 AM, swansont said:

    There can be state election law violation, and federal. The state prosecution might help the federal, and some facts are already out there from the Cohen conviction. There’s no legal question that some of the crimes were committed. 

    Still unclear what other crime New York is claiming bumps the counts up to Class E felonies. From what's been disclosed, I don't even think this is couched as an election law violation, rather fraudulent business practices.

    On 4/5/2023 at 10:57 AM, toucana said:

    It made a change from Russian language spam for porn, Viagra, and fake Rolex watches that used to be a regular feature of other forums I have posted on.

    The DOJ Mar-a-Lago investigators are also said to be looking into claims that FPOTUS defendant Trump showed highly classified documents and maps to political sponsors. That can be construed as selling classified information under the 1917 Espionage Act.

    It occurred to me that swansont and Phi For All are probably enjoying such soft targets here on the board. I thought it was showing documents to foreigners, but like I said I'll have to look into that, I'm not familiar with that. I have read that they are pursuing obstruction of justice charges for how the document recovery was handled.

  8. On 3/14/2023 at 7:02 AM, TheVat said:

    Toxoplasmosis is a champ.  Half the world has it, and most never have symptoms, and it spreads from cat litter boxes.  

    The parasite's survival is dependent on a balance between host survival and parasite proliferation. T. gondii achieves this balance by manipulating the host's immune response, reducing the host's immune response, and enhancing the parasite's reproductive advantage. Once it infects a normal host cell, it resists damage caused by the host's immune system, and changes the host's immune processes.  As it forces its way into the host cell, the parasite forms a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) membrane from the membrane of the host cell. The PV encapsulates the parasite, and is both resistant to the activity of the endolysosomal system, and can take control of the host's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.

    Bravo, +1. T. gondii is also notable for changing behavior of the host. Infected mice will make themselves vulnerable to predation by cats. Infected humans have behavioral and psychological symptoms. And,  A brain parasite is making wolves into pack leaders, scientists say



    [...]the infected canids surveyed by the Yellowstone Wolf Project for the study appeared to be up to 46 times more likely to become pack leaders in the wake of infection. This may be because T. gondii has been shown in other mammals — including, in humans in particular — to increase testosterone levels, the research notes.

    Cat Carrier

    The wolves infected with the parasite were also, per the study, 11 times more likely to venture into new territory than their uninfected counterparts — a macho move if there ever was one, as this dangerous behavior tends to quite literally expand the pack's turf.

    Effects of Toxoplasmosis on human behavior


    Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. The demonstration that latent Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior in rodents has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. When infected human adults were compared with uninfected adults on personality questionnaires or on a panel of behavioral tests, several differences were found. Other studies have demonstrated reduced psychomotor performance in affected individuals. Possible mechanisms by which T. gondii may affect human behavior include its effect on dopamine and on testosterone.

    Toxoplasmosis and behavioural changes


    Abstract Nearly one-third of the planet's population is affected by Toxoplasma gondii infection. In ophthalmology, toxoplasmosis is even considered to be the most common cause of posterior uveitis of infectious origin. Humans are only an intermediate host and T. gondii needs to infect cats for its sexual reproduction. All the elements increasing the risk of predation by the definitive host are then favourable to the parasite. Numerous experimental animal model studies have shown that T. gondii infection is associated with predatory risk behaviours such as an attraction of infected mice to cat urine. Infection with the parasite is associated with a demethylation of the promoters of certain genes in the cerebral amygdala of the intermediate hosts, modifying dopaminergic circuits associated with fear. Similarly, T. gondii has been linked to behavioural changes in humans. Toxoplasma infection is classically associated with the frequency of schizophrenia, suicide attempts or "road rage". A more recent study shows that toxoplasma infection prevalence was a consistent, positive predictor of entrepreneurial activity. Fear of failure would be less important in infected individuals, who are more willing than others to start their own business. These elements shed interesting light on behaviours and their possible relationship with toxoplasmosis, which is generally considered benign in adults.

    emphasis added

    Though contact with an infected cat's feces is a risk factor, infection is more likely transmitted by consuming undercooked meat or soil exposure, according to this study:

    Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study


    Risk factors most strongly predictive of acute infection in pregnant women were eating undercooked lamb, beef, or game, contact with soil, and travel outside Europe and the United States and Canada. Contact with cats was not a risk factor. Between 30% and 63% of infections in different centres were attributed to consumption of undercooked or cured meat products and 6% to 17% to soil contact.

    emphasis added


  9. On 3/30/2023 at 8:24 PM, iNow said:

    Of course he did. 

    It seems they have far more damaging documentation than just the Cohen testimony so this may be moot. 

    He’s already raised over $2M since announcing he’d be arrested last Tuesday and I’m sure he and his minions will bilk his hordes out of at least $10M more just this weekend given the announcement today. 


    On 4/1/2023 at 9:05 AM, Janus said:

    It seems highly unlikely that a Grand Jury would make the unprecedented move to indict a former President on over 30 counts if all they had to go on was the testimony of one witness.   Of course, we won't know exactly what the charges are until  he is arraigned.  One commentator  has suggested that this may go beyond the hush money case, as he can't see how that, by itself, could be stretched into more than 8 separated charges.

    Should be interesting. As far as I know, the Stormy Daniel's payoff may've involved moving campaign contribution money, hence should've been picked up and run by Federal attorneys. Wtih capabilities to indict a ham sandwich, a narcissistic Orangutan should've been duck soup. What this case is doing filed in New York looks like wait and see material. Hopefully soon.

    If they don't have it nailed down, it's a 'Uge nothing-burger', and he walks without time, I think it's a huge mistake.



    Evidence of biogenic graphite, and possibly stromatolites, were discovered in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks in southwestern Greenland. Potential "remains of life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. "Putative filamentous microfossils", possibly of methanogens and/or methanotrophs, that lived about 3.42-billion-year-old in "a paleo-subseafloor hydrothermal vein system of the Barberton greenstone belt, have been identified in South Africa."

    Fossilized microorganisms (microfossils) have been found in hydrothermal vent precipitates from an ancient sea-bed in the Nuvvuagittuq Belt of Quebec, Canada. These may be as old as 4.28 billion years, the oldest evidence of life on Earth, suggesting "an almost instantaneous emergence of life" after ocean formation 4.41 billion years ago. Some researchers even speculate that life may have started nearly 4.5 billion years ago. According to biologist Stephen Blair Hedges, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth ... then it could be common in the universe". The possibility that terrestrial life forms may have been seeded from outer space has been considered.

    In January 2018, a study found that 4.5 billion-year-old meteorites found on Earth contained liquid water along with prebiotic complex organic substances that may be ingredients for life.



    2 hours ago, studiot said:

    At what point did the chemical precursors of life combine to from something 'alive' and did that something respire ?

    I don't know.


    [...] can be traced back to 3.5 billion years ago and are considered to be among the oldest forms of microbes [...]

    What is phylogenetically older than bacteria?

    *uncited references

  11. 18 hours ago, studiot said:

    The original lifeforms changed both of these, introducing oxygen into the atmousphere (it didn't start of with any).

    Upon review I concur with the latter part of your statement that there was little or no accumulation of gasesous forms of molecular oxygen in the early atmosphere. I meant transmutation, having read your statement to say there was no oxygen, but you didn't say that. I have been trying to maintain this as an homework exercise, so I'll restate my point in disagreement with your cited premise that there are bacteria, which likely predate cyanobacteria, that can use another electron acceptor to respire anaerobically.

  12. 1 hour ago, Moontanman said:

    Wouldn't this material be limited due to borons rarity? 

    I am not up on this thread, and if the discussion has gone towards sourcing materials locally I suppose that's what you're saying?
    Boron, California mine operations


    Meeting a third of the world’s boron demands
    U.S. Borax operates California’s largest open pit mine in Boron, California—one of the richest borate deposits on the planet. While boron is present everywhere in the environment, substantial deposits of borates are relatively rare. We're finding better ways to provide the materials the world needs by supplying around one-third of the world’s demand for refined borates. Our operations are designed to create high-quality products to meet global needs for boron.
    Mining and refining
    We produce approximately 1 million tons of refined borate ore every year from our Boron mine. It produces about a third of the world's supply of refined borate products.  The mine measures 1.74 miles (2.8 km) wide, 1.99 miles (3.2 km) long, and is up to 755 feet (230 m) deep. More than 80 minerals are found at this geologically unique site, including the four boron-based minerals in greatest demand by industry: Tincal, kernite, ulexite, and colemanite.

    I think there is another large natural deposit in Turkey.

  13. 6.5% interest rate should be in red with blood dripping off it for effect. As far as I know, the Magician is involved when the mortgage (dead-hand) is created: the bank creates a fictitious deposit as an "escrow", then you service that "loan" with interest; though I don't actually know about "escrow".

    23 hours ago, exchemist said:

    What are you talking about?

    "Have you seen the cat?" is an old slogan from Georgism or "Geoism"--the question about who owns the land. From wiki,


    "[...]an economic ideology holding that, although people should own the value they produce themselves, the economic rent derived from land—including from all natural resources, the commons, and urban locations—should belong equally to all members of society. Developed from the writings of American economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.[6][7]
    Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by land ownership, natural monopolies, pollution rights, and control of the commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g. intellectual property). Any natural resource which is inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of land monopoly involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient, fair and equitable. The main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value, arguing that revenues from a land value tax (LVT) can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes (such as on income, trade, or purchases) that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue to the people by means of a basic income or citizen's dividend.[...]

    Maybe I brought my own axe to grind here, but I think what he's talking about is how gonzo the real estate market is, and I think the reason it is so is because speculative capital can and is leveraged or created to "purchase" land or dwellings that are then rented in a fashion that is inherently unfair, largely unexamined, and profitable to some. I think the "rentier class" should have their rent incomes taxed differently, and from what I understand that alone could serve to finance government and simplify the tax code.

    On 4/1/2023 at 7:47 AM, Externet said:

    How a plain person deals with this ?  Any magicians here ?   How do you do it ?  Members of this forum with much higher knowledge, education, activity status than the general public.

    No sage answer, but financial literacy seems a must. Avoid debt, unless it's taken on to finance what becomes an income stream? Though that would incude the kind of rentier capitalism I'm talking about under the current state of affairs; maybe refuse that on principle.


    9 minutes ago, mistermack said:

    You are talking as if there is only one "fitness". I think you have to include the effect of environment, as a driver of evolution. A new mutation might be neutral, or detrimental to fitness in one environment, but be very advantageous in another. If a new mutation allows an organism to better exploit a vacamt niche, then an evolutionary split can happen, with a new phenotype separating from it's cousins. 

    Fitness and environment go hand in hand, so there are as many version of fitness as there are different environments. 

    Yes, reproductive fitness, which AFAIK was the only show in town there. Though "making poop" could be supposed to be the purpose of organism as much as reproduction. As it stands I will stop shit-posting, or coming up like a fish out of water for off-topic debate; though I do appreciate the work-up and perspective!

  15. 1 hour ago, Genady said:

    This is not necessary. Most mutations are neutral. They might not cause any change in phenotype at all until some environmental or other genetic changes occur. Or they might cause a change in phenotype which is indifferent for the fitness. These neutral mutations might spread in population by a 'random walk' process. Or, they might get fixed because of population split. There are other possibilities as well.

    If it reaches phenotypic expression I infer the mutation in question was in a gene coding for a protein. How could any difference in phenotype be neutral to fitness?

  16. 4 hours ago, Genady said:

    Only advantageous mutation, is incorrect, AFAIK: there is no such restriction. Other modes of changes in allele frequencies exist, such as genetic drift and genetic draft.

    Thank you to you and mistermack, I do need a refresher course. Genetic draft it seems is hitchhiking--along a selection sweep that is carrying a beneficial allele to expression frequency of 1? Genetic drift is an accounting for some randomness in allele distribution, but I still think it can be thought that the alleles in question arose and persisted because they were beneficial under the rubric of evolution?

    3 hours ago, mistermack said:

    It's not a subject that you can get a simple answer for on a forum. If you are interested, do a bit of reading on the subject, and don't expect definitive answers, because we don't have them as yet. Just the best opinions so far from the people who are currently most informed on the subject.

    As usual, wikipedia is the best starting platform. 

    wikipedia "Researchers generally think that current life descends from an RNA world, although other self-replicating molecules may have preceded RNA."


    I think we would agree the question here makes assumptions. I would posit it'd be equally flawed to discount panspermia and Lamarckian inheritance of ruggedness from space microbes. However, I recognize that those, and catastrophism (as opposed to the gradualism that studiot alludes to) are not thought of as the "best opinions so far from the people who are currently most informed".

    3 hours ago, studiot said:


    The original lifeforms changed both of these, introducing oxygen into the atmousphere (it didn't start of with any).


    Are you implying biological transmutation?

    Tip o' the cap to Ringer and his 'bumbling' assistant's 'solution'.

    On 3/31/2023 at 1:46 AM, StringJunky said:

    Do you  understand what NTuft meant with SPONCH CaFe?

    To try and get back on track, though of course studiot is on track, because of what I think the question is asking after, there is a reason I did not put it as CHNOPS.

  17. On 3/31/2023 at 5:11 AM, mistermack said:

    Life started a long long time before the first cell, so really the question is flawed. And once evolution starts, it's composition doesn't need to stay the same, so analysing the composition of a modern cell doesn't necessarily point to the condition for the origin of life. 

    Scientists currently argue about the date of the first life, or last universal common ancestor, but the likely date is constantly being pushed back further than first thought. But most put it about 500 million years before the formation of the first cells. 

    I disagree that the question is flawed. First, are you positing spontaneous generation? Second, "once evolution starts", it enitrely conserves forms with alterations on prior template only arising through advantageous mutation, as I understand that theory. Third, what is the theory regarding "life" as something other than a cellular from, and could you provide a link to information about that?

  18. On 3/30/2023 at 7:25 PM, Trurl said:

    Thanks, but that is the famously well-received paper by Yitang Zhang, which earned him a university position: Unheralded Mathematician Bridges the Prime Gap . See here for a new recent result from Zhang,  Mathematician who solved prime-number riddle claims new breakthrough:


    "After shocking the mathematics community with a major result in 2013, Yitang Zhang now says he has solved an analogue of the celebrated Riemann hypothesis."

    He is Chinese-American. Whoever was mentioned as an Indian mathematician publishing on Riemann's hypothesis ca. 2013 is likely someone else--I may have to investigate what you're pointing to in the podcast to find out.

  19. On 12/3/2022 at 7:18 PM, sologuitar said:

    I am stuck on a question concerning a square root prove. 

    Here it is:

    Give an example to show that sqrt{a^(2)} is not equal to a. Use it to explain why sqrt{a^(2)} = | a |. 


    On 12/16/2022 at 6:46 AM, Country Boy said:

    a= -2.

    a2= 4.  

    What is the square root of 4?

    (Remember that the square root is a FUNCTION so can have only one value.)

    The square root may be considered a multivalued function.

    On 3/19/2023 at 4:50 PM, Genady said:

    AFAIK, x2 has two square roots: +x and -x.

    Example 1:

    Example 2:

    The square operation should be applied first once a number is input to evaluate the expression. In distinction from the algebra convention when solving for variables where the power is simply removed. Squaring of course gives a positive value. Once the square root is applied, plus/minus is appended in front of the operator, for the equivalent reason absolute value is used here.
    equation ; because there is ambiguity (multi-value) output from the square root... relation. Nothing in the question remarked about limiting the domain of input or codomain of output to ensure a single-valued function. 

  20. On 3/24/2023 at 3:22 PM, RomanRodinskiy said:

    Life is thought to have originated in seawater. Analyse the chemical composition of a cell and indicate the ideal place for the origin of life on our planet. 

    Around the SPONCH CaFe.

  21. Hi Trurl,

    On 2/28/2022 at 8:58 PM, Trurl said:

    Can anyone explain in one paragraph or equation how the Riemann hypothesis implies a pattern in Prime numbers?

    The hypothesis an easy enough to follow the problem, but the pattern in Primes is not clear to me.

    I’m sure a Google search may be helpful, but I wanted to work it through on my own. I find it helpful to take one small part if the problem and see what it does. Take the book Practical Cryptography. It explains all the ciphers. They are all open source. Doesn’t mean you can solve them but it lets you see the inner workings.

    That is what I need an explanation of the patterns in Primes in the Riemann hypothesis. I hope you understand why I just don’t google it. I want to search for nontrivial zeros. And I want to keep it simple.

    I found this slideshow presentation informative Prime numbers and the Riemann zeta function, Carl Wang-Erickson, Nov. 12, 2019:



    For primes up to a real number A, what is the average size of the gap between primes?
    Stated differently: Of the A numbers up to a real number A, what proportion of them are prime?
    let’s define
    π(X ) := the number of primes X
    We call this the prime counting function.

    How are the primes distributed on average?
    “Average size of gaps up to A” = A/π(A)
    “Proportion of numbers up to A that are prime” = π(A)/A
    We find that the function
    X/log X
    is a good approximation for π(X). (The base of “log” is e.) [Ed.: i.e. ln, natural logarithm base]
    We propose that π(X) behaves like X/ log X as X gets large. This means that:
    the average gap between primes up to A is about log A.
    the proportion of numbers up to A that are prime is about 1/ log A.

    There is some difficult math, but if you go through the presentation I think it can clear up how the Riemann hypothesis points at a pattern in prime number's average, logarithmic distribution.

    On 3/23/2023 at 9:10 PM, Trurl said:


    [...]Obviously, you could argue that because we are going through all real [Ed.: natural] numbers [...]


    Problem 2:

    We all leant that a modulus can be described by a clock. [...]

    I would like you to describe that to me. I think of the argument (angle) for a complex number as rotating around.

    On 3/23/2023 at 9:10 PM, Trurl said:



    [...] I found a book on the Riemann Hypothesis that is geared to the undergraduate. But it is better is it easy to read so that I can better understand it. I heard in a podcast that an Indian mathematician claimed to have proved Riemann’s work. He posted it on the Internet. It has been years, and no one can make any sense of it. [...] I’m just looking for simple ways to understand it.

    Can you refer me to that document or paper, please?

    On 3/25/2023 at 4:20 PM, Trurl said:


    Awesome now we have a formula. [Ed.: agreed, that is interesting +1 Genady]

    [...] over the range of real [Ed.:natural] numbers, [...]

    I haven't gone through links or the paper you've provided, and I don't much understand the odometer question, but I read you're working at cryptography applications, so I'll think about it.

  22. I see splodge was banned as sockpuppet of JustJoe, but this mention

    On 3/24/2023 at 10:54 AM, Moontanman said:

    [...] magnetosphere [...]


    opens up a line for investigation.

    The Moon and the Magnetotail, NASA.gov:


    Earth’s magnetotail extends well beyond the orbit of the moon and, once a month, the moon orbits through it,” says Tim Stubbs, a University of Maryland scientist working at the Goddard Space Flight Center. “This can have consequences ranging from lunar ‘dust storms’ to electrostatic discharges.”
    Yes, Earth does have a magnetic tail. It is an extension of the same familiar magnetic field we experience when using a Boy Scout compass to find our way around Earth’s surface. Our entire planet is enveloped in a bubble of magnetism, which springs from a molten dynamo in Earth’s core. Out in space, the solar wind presses against this bubble and stretches it, creating a long “magnetotail” in the downwind direction.

    Anyone can tell when the moon is inside the magnetotail. Just look: “If the moon is full, it is inside the magnetotail,” says Stubbs. “The moon enters the magnetotail three days before it is full and takes about six days to cross and exit on the other side.”

    It is during those six days that strange things can happen.

    During the crossing, the moon comes in contact with a gigantic “plasma sheet” of hot charged particles trapped in the tail. The lightest and most mobile of these particles, electrons, pepper the moon’s surface and give the moon a negative charge.

    On the moon’s dayside this effect is counteracted to a degree by sunlight: UV photons knock electrons back off the surface, keeping the build-up of charge at relatively low levels. But on the nightside, in the cold lunar dark, electrons accumulate and surface voltages can climb to hundreds or thousands of volts.

    Imagine what it feels like to be a sock pulled crackling from a dryer. Astronauts on the moon during a magnetotail crossing might be able to tell you. Walking across the dusty charged-up lunar terrain, the astronauts themselves would gather a load of excess charge. Touching another astronaut, a doorknob, a piece of sensitive electronics -- any of these simple actions could produce an unwelcome discharge. “Proper grounding is strongly recommended,” says Stubbs.
    The ground, meanwhile, might leap into the sky. There’s growing evidence that fine particles of moondust might actually float, ejected from the lunar surface by electrostatic repulsion. This could create a temporary nighttime atmosphere of dust ready to blacken spacesuits, clog machinery, scratch faceplates (moondust is very abrasive) and generally make life difficult for astronauts.

    Stranger still, moondust might gather itself into a sort of diaphanous wind. Drawn by differences in global charge accumulation, floating dust would naturally fly from the strongly-negative nightside to the weakly-negative dayside. This “dust storm” effect would be strongest at the moon’s terminator, the dividing line between day and night.

    Much of this is pure speculation, Stubbs cautions. No one can say for sure what happens on the moon when the magnetotail hits, because no one has been there at the crucial time. “Apollo astronauts never landed on a full moon and they never experienced the magnetotail.”
    The best direct evidence comes from NASA’s Lunar Prospector spacecraft, which orbited the moon in 1998-99 and monitored many magnetotail crossings. During some crossings, the spacecraft sensed big changes in the lunar nightside voltage, jumping “typically from -200 V to -1000 V,” says Jasper Halekas of UC Berkeley who has been studying the decade-old data.
    “It is important to note,” says Halekas, “that the plasma sheet (where all the electrons come from) is a very dynamic structure. The plasma sheet is in a constant state of motion, flapping up and down all the time. So as the moon orbits through the magnetotail, the plasma sheet can sweep across it many times. Depending on how dynamic things are, we can encounter the plasma sheet many times during a single pass through the magnetotail with encounters lasting anywhere from minutes to hours or even days.”

    “As a result, you can imagine how dynamic the charging environment on the moon is. The moon can be just sitting there in a quiet region of the magnetotail and then suddenly all this hot plasma goes sweeping by causing the nightside potential to spike to a kilovolt. Then it drops back again just as quickly.”

    The roller coaster of charge would be at its most dizzying during solar and geomagnetic storms. “That is a very dynamic time for the plasma sheet and we need to study what happens then,” he says.

    What happens then? Next-generation astronauts are going to find out. NASA is returning to the moon in the decades ahead and plans to establish an outpost for long-term lunar exploration. It turns out they’ll be exploring the magnetotail, too.

    More Information:

    Earth’s magnetotail isn’t the only source of plasma to charge the moon. Solar wind can provide charged particles, too; indeed, most of the time, the solar wind is the primary source. But when the moon enters the magnetotail, the solar wind is pushed back and the plasma sheet takes over. The plasma sheet is about 10 times hotter than the solar wind and that gives it more "punch" when it comes to altering the charge balance of the moon's surface. Two million degree electrons in the plasma sheet race around like crazy and many of them hit the moon's surface. Solar wind electrons are relatively cool at only 140 thousand degrees, and fewer of them zip all the way down to the shadowed surface of the moon's nightside.
    Tony Phillips, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    emphasis added.

  23. 21 hours ago, studiot said:

    No idea what you mean by this ?

    The issue with post numbering--there was a thread where you, Genady, and some others were discussing how you can put links to specific posts within threads inside a reply as a way to refer back to prior material. Discussion there about the issue with posts not being numbered, and you mentioned someone else had tried to explain it to you. This should probably be PM material, but, anyway, did you get around to where you can identify specific posts by their forum-wide post number? You can see that number is contained within a URL/web address that is attached to each post?? The time stamp at the top of a post is a hot-link on my computer. If you copy the link address and paste it the post number will be displayed.
    Other than that just saying thanks for reading and participating in my rambling speculation here.

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