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quiet

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Everything posted by quiet

  1. You seem like a well-informed person about flying saucers. What can you comment about the Nazi Bell? Once, with a photographic program, I contracted the vertical measurement in the photo of the Nazi Bell. The result is the image of a flying saucer. Could the flying saucer be a flattened version of the bell? This question does not validate any affirmation regarding the success or failure of the Nazi attempt. It only refers to topologically identical geometric shapes, which only differ in the contraction or expansion of one of the measurements.
  2. Talking about races implies talking about numerous groups, communities, collective processes. Then you can not reach valid conclusions without taking into account everything. Before asking why the white race has advanced more than others in acquiring instruments of global power, there is an obvious fact that demands explanation. When the transport allowed to cross oceans, mountain ranges and all the great geographical obstacles, the races mixed. Before that each race was located in a totally specific region, as a continent or a part of a continent separated from the other parts by geographical obstacles insurmountable for the time. Why, before the development of modern transport, were the races geographically separated, each in a specific region? Just as in Thermodynamics the gases do not separate spontaneously, we can not suppose that initially mixed races have separated into geographical regions because they decided so themselves one day. The separation can not be the result of a voluntary decision made by the races. The cause of the separation came from another instance, not the races that have been geographically isolated. I know that this fact can be picked up by currents of thought that, according to the preferences of each one, will make the interpretation that they like the most. It is not an interpretation at ease what the objective fact claims. The fact calls for a thorough investigation, which, if it has been carried out, has not been turned to popular knowledge. We ignore the origin of the human species, ignore the cause of racial geographic isolation and, as part of a large set of ignored details, we ignore why the white race has progressed more than others in acquiring the media to dominate the world.
  3. quiet

    Light in a vacuum

    Thanks to all persons who have wrote on this thread. We have seen the movie and commented it while we drink a coffee. Now, someone wait me at home.
  4. quiet

    Light in a vacuum

    I will try to express my doubt as best I can. - Similar experiment done with a gun that shoots a bullet, instead of a laser that shoots a pulse of light. The bullet has mass and when it leaves the pistol it does not become independent of the linear momentum conferred by the pistol. In a vacuum it retains that linear momentum. If you imagine the laboratory at absolute rest, then the velocity of the bullet has a component equal to zero in the longitudinal direction of the laboratory. If you imagine the laboratory moving in a straight and uniform way with respect to some reference that the laboratory does not detect with the available media, then the velocity of the bullet and the speed of the laboratory have equal components in the longitudinal direction of the laboratory. That is inevitable because the bullet has mass and retains the longitudinal component of the impulse. The laboratory will always see that the bullet travels a line perpendicular to the wall where the gun is placed and reaches the second wall. - Now the experiment with the laser. The light does not take linear moment of the laser device. It takes energy that is used to create fields E and B. These fields operate together and trace their own intrinsically straight path, because electromagnetic induction operates with intrinsically right angles. The source only provides energy to the EM field, it does not provide linear momentum that must be conserved. Then the light pulse that comes out of the laser does not have in its speed a longitudinal component equal to the longitudinal component of the speed of the laboratory. In the speed of that pulse, all the components are equal to zero, minus the only component that exists, which is perpendicular to the wall where the laser device is mounted. If the speed of the laboratory has a sufficiently large component in the longitudinal direction, the following may happen. While the pulse travels, the laboratory leaves the region where the pulse is spreading. In that case, the pulse reaches a region that the second wall has left and, for that reason, does not hit the wall. The source can not confer linear momentum to fields that have no mass. - The details omitted for not being duly published constitute a book of 130 pages, which does not allow to obviate the problem of linear momentum. The linear momentum of EM radiation is given by the theorem that Maxwell demonstrated, which establishes the following expression. [math]p = \dfrac{E}{C}[/math] That linear momentum does not come from the source of radiation. It comes from a process wich is independent of the source. For that reason I doubt that in all cases, regardless of what happens before the experiment, the laser pulse reaches the second wall. P.S. It could happen that Special Relativity applies to objects with mass and not to electromagnetic waves in a vacuum.
  5. quiet

    Light in a vacuum

    I am keeping many details that, according to the rules of the mainstream forums, do not constitute information. Why these details are not information in the forum? Because they do not comply with the rules of publication due. So, officially, I'm not keeping information. I must admit that, without the details left fierce of the forum, I would never have had doubts about this case that I presented as a scene from a movie. Frequently we find in the forums threads dedicated to analyze to what extent this or that scene of a film meets or violates the accepted physical laws. I have planted the scene in the simplest way I could. There are no tricks, no traps, no cunning details as we see in some exams. I'm not ashamed to confess that a simple scene has caused me doubts. I would really like such an experiment to be done in practice. I would like to see that light always reaches the second wall, regardless of what happened before the experiment. For example, before doing the experiment, activate the engine of the lab ship and spend a lot of time accelerating. I'm thinking of an acceleration that if it were done with respect to a planet, it would achieve that the ship reached 99% of C with respect to the planet. After that turn off the engine and allow straight and uniform movement. The next thing is to do the experiment. Relativity, Galilean, Einsteinian, however, expects light to reach the second wall. The details I have keeped does not expect the same. Therefore, in the scene of the imaginary film director, the light is not detected in the second wall. Filmmakers love scenes that challenge established physics.
  6. quiet

    Light in a vacuum

    With respect to the first question, the lab is not accelerated. Then SR applies. Einstein's postulate states that all is like if the lab were in absolute rest, because all systems without acceleration complies the same laws. Then, the director of the movie has violate SR, because in absolute rest the laser pulse reaches the second wall and is detected. More difficult for me is the second question. Maxwell's Electrodynamics implies that once emmited, the EM wave is idependent of the source. I can't understand if this independence stablishes a difference between the lab supossed in absolute rest, and the lab supossed in straight and uniform movement. Without to know in detail all that Maxwellian ED implies, I cant to know if the scene of the movie violates or not this theory.
  7. quiet

    Light in a vacuum

    Sorry. In first post I have not say that the laboratory isn't accelerated. Now I can't edit the first post. I beg your pardon. The distance between walls and the time while laser is emmiting have less importance than the concept of the scene. You can to think in a tiny time and a grand distance between walls.
  8. I will explain the doubt with the following example. I go to the cinema and the film tells the experiences of some scientists. In one scene, it shows a laboratory capable of operating in a vacuum, where there is no gravity or other fields. There are only the fields that scientists can create when they do an experiment. The shape of the laboratory resembles a large tube with a rectangular section. The work rooms are on one of the walls of the tube. The inside of the big tube is hollow. The media available in the laboratory does not detect surrounding objects. Within the scope of those media, the laboratory is alone in an empty space. Inside, near one end of the tube, a device is mounted that will activate a laser when it receives the order. The laser points in a direction perpendicular to the wall where the device is mounted. The wall parallel to that, is prepared so that all points are sensitive to light. If the laser pulse hits some point of the second wall, it will be detected. The separation between both walls is equal to [math] 100 \ \mathbf{m} [/math] In that scene, the director of the film decides to show the following. The laser receives the command and is activated. A time equal to [math] 10^{-8} \ \mathbf{s} [/math] is activated. Scientists see that the laser emits light, but nothing is detected in the second wall. They repeat the action and nothing. They do many repetitions and nothing. They check everything and do not find faults or breakdowns. Now two questions. 1. Does that scene violate special relativity? 2. Does that scene violate Maxwellian electrodynamics? I suppose that answering the first question is an easier task than answering the second one, when we decide to think everything carefully and in detail.
  9. I want to give a faithful testimony that I have not started this thread. That is why I invite those who lead the forum to investigate the reason why this thread has been created and for what purpose it was created. It is a serious abnormality the appearance with the username that has not created the thread. It's like adding the scene of a crime to blame a person who did not commit the crime. And this is exactly the case. It's bad. Please do not allow this to go uninvestigated. The universe is restricted to those who have access to the forum's database and can see my password, which is too complex to guess randomly.
  10. Is nonsense what I have posted? May be. Need I to fill the gaps in my knowledge? Yes, sure! Is something obvious in the behavior of the capacitor in vacuum? I prefer to walk here very carefuly. Think the following. You make work to increase the distance between the plates of the capacitor. The energy involved have changed. If the force operates exchanging photons, you have two possibilities. 1. To change the number of photons if photon's frequency remains constant. This implies that you are supossing that space is discrete. Problem here. 2. The number of photons remains constant and photon's frequency changes. Then, you are supossing that a capacitor can produce a parametric transformation. Problem here. For this kind of problems I prefer to walk carefuly.
  11. There is too much research pending about capacitive phenomenon. Remember. Maxwell never can completed the electrodynamic theory without an analysis of the electric displacement on vacuum, just referred to a capacitor. Note I take care pointing the monodimensional operation of capacitive force.
  12. There is something very familiar, known from the first steps in the study of electricity. It is the capacitor of parallel plates. Nothing is mysterious in that capacitor. That does not diminish the relevance of a peculiar property. The force between the plates is independent of the separation of the plates. Separated by 1 millimeter, or separated by an astronomical distance, the force has the same value as long as the charges remain unchanged. Richard Feynman used to mention that property to the students, to encourage the attitude we call open-mindedness. In the parallel plate capacitor, the force vector has the direction of a line segment comprised between the plates. That is, that force operates in a one-dimensional space. I emphasize that because in the paragraphs I will use the words space and time within that context, not in a space with more dimensions. Can something be a function of time that is not a function of space? In the equation of capacitive force, space does not appear. That is, the distance between plates does not appear. For that force, space does not exist. Without space the definition of speed is impossible. And without space or speed, time is impossible. Now I will ask another question. Very distant plates, for example separated by an astronomical distance. On one of the plates we alter something. For example, we alter the charge by touching the plate with an electrified object. In the new situation, the force can not have the same value as in the previous situation. How long is it necessary for the new force value to be established on the plate away from us? The answer is surprising. No time. Zero. Both plates update the new force value together. I repeat, in the equation of capacitive force space, speed and time do not exist. These three terms operate only in the definitions we propose to develop mechanics and branches of physics related to mechanics.
  13. Hi, jajrussel. First you need to understand the following. The word particle, unfortunately, has been used as an official denomination for elementary quantum entities. One is the electron. Another word would have caused less confusion. I know that there are always people willing to point out that the electron does not meet the definition of something elementary because it is composed of quarks. I do not want to participate in that criticism, because it seems sterile to me. And I do not want to denominate particle to the electron, nor to other entities of that category. That's why I want to call it elementary quantum entities. What properties does an elementary quantum entity have? When it is in motion, it differs very little from a group of electromagnetic waves that travels within a waveguide. And when it is at rest, it differs very little from an electromagnetic standing wave set within a waveguide. When you analyze the guide you get the basic equations of special relativity and quantum theory, including Louis de Broglie's equation referring to the phase wavelength. The mathematical development of all this is simple and very didactic. What is the electromagnetic standing wave within the guide? Is it a resting particle? No. It is stationary wave energy, which exists locally without traveling. What is a group of waves within the guide? Is it a moving particle? No. It is wave energy that travels with a speed less than C. And without being a particle, does it comply with the basic laws of special relativity and quantum theory? Yes. These laws cover much more than particles. They cover the oscillating energy. Is it a common particle, for example a grain of pollen, oscillating energy? Yes, when you analyze the grain at the elementary level. And when you introduce the artifice of defining the center of mass, to formulate the movement as if all the energy / mass were concentrated at that point, the relativistic equations appear easily but not the quantum equations, because you are not contemplating the elementary level. --------- I hope that the above has helped to eliminate the confusion regarding the use of the word particle at the elementary level. You can always think on the group of electromagnetic waves and the standing wave within the guide. The group does not meander when it moves. If the guide is straight, the energy / mass travels rectilinearly while the electromagnetic field oscillates and is responsible for conserving the energy of the group. Without oscillating could not keep it. Something similar happens in the mass / spring system. If you do work to move the system from its relaxed position, the oscillation of the system is responsible for conserving the energy that you have delivered to the system. The friction, the heating of the spring and other effects make the oscillation of this system progressively decrease the amplitude, which does not allow to conserve all the energy delivered. In the elementary quantum entity there is no friction, no heating, no fatigue, no other effects that reduce the proportion of energy conserved by the oscillation. That is why the energy / mass of an elementary entity is constant when the entity remains at rest with respect to the observer. Louis de Broglie, in his doctoral thesis, indirectly proposed a model of elementary entity. In one of the first paragraphs he wrote the following. Suppose there is a periodic phenomenon linked to each particle. This hypothesis is the basis to mathematically analyze the movement and obtain the same equations that are obtained in the electromagnetic waveguide. The wave group in the guide and the free particle do not meander when they move. In the group of waves and in the particle, the constitutive energy [math]m \ C^2[/math] is conserved by the presence of fields that oscillate at the elementary level. For that reason there is no acceleration when the movement is rectilinear and the velocity is constant. It would be necessary a meandering for there to be permanent acceleration. And nothing menders when a particle moves in a straight line with constant velocity.
  14. There is an essential detail. A photon that has been emitted in a vacuum becomes independent from the source immediately. Other detail. At sufficient distance from the source, the photons that make up the light beam are mutually independent. Anything else. In pure vacuum, with no gravity or other fields present, the Euclidean definition of straight line is identical to the trajectory of the photon. Your question is about a source that moves in a vacuum. The movement of the source does not affect the photon that has become independent of it.
  15. We are at the time of the genome studied, manipulated, synthesized, etc. Imagine that you decide to create a new animal species, synthesizing DNA from scratch, without copying sequences of existing animals. How much power should you give to the sexual instinct if you want the species to be able to conserve itself, overcoming obstacles that may appear? Obviously a great power is necessary, superior to the power of the conscious functions. Is there any risk derived from the great power assigned to sex? Yes. In case of staying a long time in a benevolent environment, overpopulation will be inevitable. The same thing that you have codified to guarantee the subsistence of the species, can extinguish it by overpopulation. Can you do something to minimize that problem? You could code an auxiliary mechanism, activated when the population density reaches a critical value. A mechanism designed to moderate the birth rate. We offer ideas. - Idea # 1: The mechanism causes premature death. Advantage? Controls the birth rate. Defect? Attempt against acquisition of skills and knowledge. It also undermines the optimal way of parenting, as many offspring would lose a parent or both when they need it most, they would also lose teachers and irreplaceable people. The premature death threatens the performance of the species and, in a few generations, threatens conservation. Discarded idea. - Idea # 2: Instead of premature death, the mechanism could provoke a compulsive tendency to emigrate towards remote regions. Basically it leads to the same result, because to die or to be far away are two forms of absence. Discarded idea. - Idea # 3: Implement sexual appetite control, dependent on population density. The closer the density approaches the critical value, the weaker the sexual appetite. It has the same disadvantage as the two previous ideas. The population is degraded by statistical aging. The average age tends unchecked towards pure old age. Discarded idea. These three examples show that we must discard all the mechanisms that cause absence. The need is to decrease the birth rate, not prematurely absent individuals. Any idea suitable to leave the crossroads? - Idea # 4: Implement sexual tendency control, dependent on population density. The closer the density approaches the critical value, the more the attraction is reinforced between individuals of the same sex. Each individual is different from the rest. Then the same density of population produces different measures in the reinforcement of attraction by the same sex. Although the density reaches the critical value, there will always be a fraction of the population attracted by the opposite sex. This guarantees the conservation of the species, while the density gradually returns to the optimal value. The fourth idea seems viable. And it has obvious consequences. For example, the offspring could not be raised, nor have the opportunity to absorb community knowledge, without the participation of the entire community. Individuals attracted to the same sex should collaborate in parenting and interaction with the offspring. The discriminatory reactions would threaten the future of the species, since the fraction of the population attracted by the opposite sex would be a minority and could not take care of everything. When the subject discussed is homosexuality, the arguments based on uses, customs, dogmas, historical data, etc. predominate. And reasoning based on an evident reality is scarce. Humanity is one among the living species of the planet, regardless of the event that has made the appearance possible. In each case, nature seeks to solve a problem without causing other problems. I suppose that this detail should be considered in the discussions related to homosexuality.
  16. Sorry. I use the Google translator and some technical terms are translated in colloquial mode, which sometimes does not match the technical mode. I correct: Is the linear momentun equal to the gradient of the action?
  17. Paragraph within the text displayed in that link: Because entropy production cannot be directly measured, the team first developed a theoretical framework to calculate entropy from energy. Then they used this framework to infer entropy production resulting from the energy exchange between the BEC and two heat reservoirs and between the cavity and two reservoirs. Measuring the energies of the two systems, they found that the entropy increased in both. The team studied these two systems because they both mathematically resemble coupled quantum harmonic oscillators in contact with two heat reservoirs. The team says that, in the future, they plan to monitor the entropy of both systems with finer time resolution in order to observe the systems as they approach steady state.
  18. Is the gradient of the action equal to the amount of movement?
  19. Can You tell a little more about such a model?
  20. On this I think as a way of to search a model of that we currently call elementary particle. Agree with semantic definition of elementary particle, withou internal components.
  21. One night the fatigue overcame me while driving the car. I was awakened by the horn of a truck that was advancing in front of me and was a few meters from the car. I tried an emergency maneuver. The car spun like a spin several times and ended up climbing by rear on an esplanade, about 18 cm higher than the street, where there was a police station. It was a time of state of siege throughout the country, with the streets occupied by armed forces full of fear, firing at anything unusual. The spinning spins led me to believe that I would die and the police weapons, pointing to me, reinforced that thought. That experience taught nothing about subsistence after death. But he taught a lot about what the brain can do. In a very brief moment, perhaps less than one hundredth of a second, all the visual, olfactory, tactile, flavors, sounds, conceptual data, plus everything that is perceived and thought of in life, appeared in my consciousness. It was not presented sequentially, as when one develops life. It was presented all together, in an instant. A computer enthusiast would say that in the development of life we accumulate data in series. And at that critical moment memory provided in parallel all the data that had accumulated. That totality practically ran from the uterus to the moment of the emergency maneuver, with an astonishingly complete record, amazingly accurate, astonishingly detailed. For example the image of the skin, own or of another person, appeared registered with the hundreds of thousands of pores and microdetails of the epithelial texture. And in that way everything. This indicates that the memory stores an overflowing data number, which probably no current technological system is capable of supporting. As if that were not enough, the memory can, in an infinitesimal moment, deliver the total to the module we call consciousness, capable of receiving, decoding and understanding that total at the same minute instant. That is why I do not believe that brain functions are comparable with the functions of computer technology. I do not believe that human memory operates in digital form. I can only believe in an analog operation. The Fourier Series allows us to understand that. Think of two oscillators, A and B, very perfect both, capable of maintaining without error the waveform present in each one. The waveform, developed in the Fourier Series, corresponds to the sum of many harmonic components. Each component encodes a data. Suppose that the waveform present is in oscillator A. Now enter a new data. An adder adds that data to the waveform that is in A. The sum gives a new waveform, which B is responsible for maintaining. Enter another data, add to the content of B and the result is maintained by A. The operation is repeated every time you enter a data. With two oscillators and an adder, the simplest version of harmonic memory can be implemented. I do not think the brain has the simplest version. I just wanted to expose the basic scheme. If the oscillators and the adder were perfect, the harmonic memory would have the capacity to accumulate an unlimited number of data, without ever reaching the square waveform, which has an infinite number of components. The only thing that can oscillate with the necessary rapidity and perfection is an electromagnetic field in a vacuum or in the air, not in a cellular plasma or in the chemical mediating fluid that intercommunicates neurons. I suppose that by disassembling brain matter, scientists will never find the phenomenon responsible for maintaining memory. Probably the oscillating field is established outside the head, because the material inside is a medium that hinders the operation in perfect conditions. The near death experience has taught me nothing about subsisting after dying. That does not diminish the value of what it teaches about human memory and its connection to consciousness.
  22. If possible, I would like to enter the same party through another door. Suppose that in the near future a valid model of elementary particle is proposed, which agrees with the quantum theory, with relativity, with the thermodynamic treatment of the blackbody radiation, with the weak interaction, with the strong interaction, with the electromagnetic interaction and with everything necessary. That model would describe how it is made and what an elementary particle is made of. It would explain in what they agree and in what they differ a particle and its antiparticle. It would explain how and why the photon has rest mass equal to zero. I know that rest mass is an archaic expression, but I want to use very explicit language at this time. It would also explain how and why other kinds of particles and antiparticles have rest mass other than zero. It would allow to theoretically state the conditions of the particle that has the minimum rest mass compatible with subsistence. I refer that to subsist without decomposing after being created. And it would allow to deduce from the model the theoretical value of the minimum rest mass compatible with subsistence. (One would expect that theoretical value to coincide with the rest mass of the electron.) Let's open the other door now. If a valid model of elementary particle appeared, could it be advantageously replacing the probabilistic formulation?
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