1. ## MigL

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3. ## iNow

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## Popular Content

Showing content with the highest reputation since 12/04/19 in Posts

1. 8 points

## Rules update: bad faith discussions

Staff have decided to update the forum rules to include the following: This is in response to a number of threads and certain members who have made threads here under the premise of 'just asking a question,' only to reveal that they are in fact trying to peddle conspiratorial or otherwise nonsense ideas. While covered to some extent by pre-existing rules, we have decided to make it explicit that we will not be hosting these sorts of threads, if for no other reason than the fact that they are a waste of everyone's time.
2. 7 points

## Can you be a scientist and still believe in religion?

Well, since Markus has expressed his desire to join a Monastery, I think that definitely answers the OP question. But, some words to Markus... ( no offence meant, just trying to lighten the mood ) A young monk arrives at the monastery. He is assigned to helping the other monks in copying the old laws of the church by hand. He notices, however, that all of the monks are copying from copies, not from the original manuscript. So, the new monk goes to the head monk to question this, pointing out that if someone made even a small error in the first copy, it would never be picked up! In fact, that error would be continued in all of the subsequent copies. The head monk, says, “You make a good point, my son.” He goes down into the dark caves underneath the monastery where the original manuscripts are held in a locked vault. Hours go by and nobody sees the head monk. The young monk gets worried and goes down to look for him. He sees him banging his head against the wall and wailing. “We missed the R! We missed the R! We missed the R!” “Father!” cries the young monk. “What’s wrong?” The head monk with tears in his eyes replies, “The word is CELEBRATE!"
3. 7 points

4. 6 points

## 1. Thermodynamic work

A question about a sign convention that leads to a lot of confusion. This is not the only instance multiple sign conventions in Science. In this case it is a result of History. Thermodynamics was originally developed by physical scientists and engineers. They were concerned with making machines (steam engines) for the industrial revolution. Steam engines are heat engines. That is they thought in terms of input (heat in the form of fuel) and output (work). Both of these were thought of as 'naturally being' positive quantities. So they wrote their version of the Law of Conservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics) as ΔU = q - w. Chemists came to the scene from a different point of view. They wanted all forms of energy to have the same sign, whichever side of the conservation appearance they appeared so they could present the equation as a sum on both sides of the equation. So they wrote their equation as ΔU = q + w. By then it was also realised that, although all the terms are energies, there is a difference between ΔU , which is a state variable of the system, and q and w which are exchange variables of the energies crossing the system boundary. So they tidied up by stating that all energies crossing the boundary from the system to the surroundings are negative and all energies passing from the surroundings to the system are positive. Now they could add them up, move them about in equations and between equations in other parts of Science in a consistent manner. It is an improved system But it shows the importance of knowing the sign convention in use and the equations that go with it. This last remark also applies to other such instances of multiple conventions such as those in Electricity, Elasticity and elsewhere.
5. 6 points

## Last post of the first 1000

This is my 1000th post! Time to celebrate, This is a fine moment to open the Islay Single Malt I got for Christmas. Cheers from Ghideon, to all new and old form members!
6. 6 points

7. 5 points

## FTL thought experiment

When you arrive at point C, you will see the same light coming from both stars as someone who never moved from point C; Light that left both stars 5 yrs ago. You see both stars as they were 5 yrs ago.
8. 5 points

## The Official JOKES SECTION :)

Three of those images imply too much power in the wrong place. The other is a horse.
9. 5 points

## Should Police Departments Be Given More Money?

Interestingly, this too is mistaken. Decades of evidence shows rather consistently that the riots get more out of control and the property damage gets worse the more police are present. From 50 years ago: https://belonging.berkeley.edu/system/tdf/kerner_commission_full_report.pdf?file=1&force=1 From 5 years ago: https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/05/01/when-police-ratchet-up-the-force-riots-get-worse-not-better/ And from 5 months ago: https://www.themarshallproject.org/2020/06/01/why-so-many-police-are-handling-the-protests-wrong
10. 5 points

## Gravity

The 'bowling ball on a rubber sheet' is a two dimensional reduction of a 4 dimensional configuration. It has multiple problems, one of which is that you can observe it from an embedding third dimension. Space-time has no embedding dimension; both the bowling ball and you, the observer, would need to be intrinsic to the rubber sheet ( i.e. also two dimensional ). A three dimensional representation would already get rid of some problems, but not all. Picture a three dimensional grid, where x, y, and z axis divide up the space into cubic elements. A mass placed in this space would curve the x, y, and z lines such that the elements are moreskewed, and smaller, as you get closer to the mass. That is 'space' curvature, and one aspect of gravity, but already much harder to visualize than the two dimensional example of the bowling ball/rubber sheet. Actual gravity is four dimensional 'curvature' of space-time, and I can't help you visualize that as it is impossible. Some problems are just not suited to visualization, but understanding even just the basics of the math goes a long way to clarifying things.
11. 5 points

## The world has changed...

The 'economy' is not just a money making mechanism for the wealthy, Phi. It is the means by which most of us feed, clothe, house ourselves and our families; it's how we survive. I have no problem with the economy 'going for a sh*t' as long as it saves lives. But if it 'goes for a sh*t' for too long, people start losing their life for reasons other than the pandemic. That is the balance that has to be struck; dying by starvation is just as bad as dying by Covid-19. I believe that is what Danijel Gorupec meant.
12. 5 points

## Today I Learned

Today I learned that skills improved by participating here on scienceforums can, at least in some minor way, be helpful in the current virus situation. I joined a local initiative where students studying from home can ask about math and physics. Debating science here has made me more confident regarding mainstream science and how to respond with useful hints (instead of solutions) to homework questions.
13. 5 points

## Bob Lazar

Element 115 (moscovium) has a half life of about half a second, so is not very practical as a target. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscovium (And I doubt that element 116 can be produced by firing protons at the nucleus.) "Immediately decays"? It is true that the half life of livermorium is less than that of mosocvium; but it is not immediate. Livermorium decays via alpha decay. In other words, it emits a helium nucleus (a pair of protons and a pair of neutrons bound together). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livermorium It does not emit anti-protons. That would violate all sorts of conservation laws. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_law And anyway, what would be the point? This can only be of interest to people who think that antimatter=magic. What are you going to do with these anti-protons? Presumably combine them with some protons to generate energy. But you can't get any more energy out of that than you put in. So the whole process of accelerating some protons, transmuting 115 to 116, then capturing the anti-protons and then generating some protons for them to interact with, then controlling their interaction and directing the energy ... all takes energy. And must run at less than 100% efficiency. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laws_of_thermodynamics So you are going to get less energy out than just using shooting the original protons out the back of the rocket. Or using the heat from the rapid decay of the moscovium (you will be left with no useful fuel after a few minutes, anyway). There is nothing to critique here. This is just meaningless word-salad from a bad SF book. No references here because there is no such thing as "Gravity-A waves", "Gravity B waves" or "Gravity Amplifiers". Also, gravitational waves (which do exist) are not directly related to gravity. Gravitational attraction is not a wave phenomenon. Also, gravity is only attractive; there is no practical or theoretical reason to think that somehow causing gravitational waves (if that is what the ignorant author means) to interfere would cause any gravitational effect (either pull or push). Gravitational waves cause stress (stretching and shrinking) in directions orthogonal to their direction of travel. This effect is too small to be significant, unless you are a few miles from two merging back holes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_wave Gravity waves are something completely different. They are a phenomenon in fluid dynamics and have nothing to do with gravity (in the sense implied here; they are caused by gravity, not a cause of gravity). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_wave It is almost as if the author doesn't know what they are talking about. And are just stringing together a bunch of words they don't understand. See anyone can do it.
14. 5 points

## An extension of Quantum Field theory concerning universal expansion

Thank you all for your insightful comments and helpful links, and sorry I didn't reply earlier but I just joined and hit the five reply limit. You've helped me see the flaws in my thinking and weak areas of understanding, especially misunderstanding space/time to have elastic potential energy (as this was just a misunderstanding of how the models are visually represented), not using accepted vernacular, and uniform expansion. In retrospect, I should've just left out the Quantum Field explanation as I'm sure most of you understand more of it than I do already and it's already discussed on these forums. It's all forced me into the frightening conclusion that if my thoughts in this area are to have any value I'm going to have to move from being interested to being dedicated and learn some math. Darn it.
15. 5 points

## How can the cosmos be eternal?

A better question is why $10^{-43}$. Would it help to recognize that number is one unit of Planck time with our current observable universe to the volume of 1 Planck length. The temperature being equivalent to Planck temperature. The Planck units are in essence boundary conditions on which our ability to mathematically describe in essence breaks down into Infinities and nonsensical results. You often only hear the space and time axis in essence flipping roles for the GR descriptive but cosmology must also include both macro and quantum effects. So its good to understand how the limits of the macro and quantum theories apply. (String theory also recognizes these limits) One detail as mentioned in this thread is were describing our Observable portion in essence the limits of shared observable causality with our current universe. Time being a measure of rate of change or duration you in essence need a dimension in order to have something to measure or even something that must be able to change. However one must also realize that the t=0 represents the collective worldlines of all particles in our observable portion extrapolated from the closest we can mathematically describe and potentially measure. In the closest to pointlike we can describe. It does not represent any time outside our region of shared causality. In essence $10^{-43}$ is the origin of time for all potential worldlines in our observable universe that are extrapolated to the beginning of our observable universe (as the emitter event).
16. 5 points

## Space anchor idea

Thank you for all your feedback. I’m currently working on some mental health issues and cannot reply on give the answers the time that I would like to in regards to research and time and I struggle to express the concept fully and accurately, more to come but I have to work on my stability at this time kind regards David Wavish
17. 5 points

## What is dark matter?

As swansont has already stated, dark matter is matter that is hypothesized to exist due to the apparent gravitational effects we see, but which doesn't interact electromagnetically like the regular matter we are used to dealing with. This means it does not emit, reflect, or absorb light either, thus the description "dark". And as he said, we don't really know just what it is made up of yet. There are a couple of possibilities. Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) would be objects like neutron stars and black holes. These are object formed from "normal" matter (or at least a far as black holes go initially from it), but compact so much mass into a small area that they are just to small and dim to see individually. However, we need quite a bit of dark matter to explain observations, and there are reasons why we don't think the universe could have this much mass in the form of MACHOs, as it would have effected how the universe evolved, resulting in one that looks a bit different from what we see. Another possibility is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) These are sub-atomic particles that have a rest mass, but just don't interact via the electromagnetic interaction. (And pretty much everything having to do with how we interact with regular matter, from touching it or seeing it, to chemical reactions involves electromagnetic interaction) These "ghost-like" particles would pass right through you like you weren't even there. While this this seems bizarre, we actually already know of a particle that behaves like this, the neutrino; Billions of them pass through you every day with your ever noticing it. Neutrinos ( or at least the type we know of) don't work for dark matter for various reasons, so the WIMPs of dark matter would be something like, but not identical to neutrinos. It is also possible that both of the above play a role in making up the total effect we see. swansont also mentioned attempts to explain things by a modified theory of gravity. The problem with this is that a number of observations are not compatible with such an explanation. An example would be galaxies that appear to be identical but exhibit different gravity profiles. Even if the rule of gravity were different than what we presently think they are, they would still need to be consistent from galaxy to galaxy. So while its perfectly possible for different galaxies to contain different amounts of dark matter and thus as a whole act differently in terms of gravity, it is hard to explain why the actual rules governing gravity would change between galaxies. Having said this, it is still possible for a modified gravity theory to play some role, if combined with dark matter. A new theory of gravity which also incorporates a mix of MACHOs and WIMPs could end up being the final answer. Right now we are at the stage of continuing to make observations in order to narrow the playing field. We have eliminated some possibilities, but there are more to explore.
18. 4 points

## How Trump Could Steal The Election

Hillary called Trump to concede on the same night as their election and their race was FAR closer than this one with Biden. Barrack Obama invited Trump to the WH a day or 2 later and made his entire team available to the incoming Trump admin to maximize their chances of quick success. Essentially every democratic leader and person with a national profile acknowledged Trumps win and congratulated him on his victory both privately and publicly. Nothing anywhere even remotely close to this has ever once happened before since George Washington as our very first president ever transitioned power to John Addams. Let’s not pretend for even one second that this is somehow a both sides issue.
19. 4 points

## Political Humor

Recognize anyone ?
20. 4 points

Lol...
21. 4 points

## Political Humor

Salute to 2020 Ice Cream Flavour:
22. 4 points

## The Official JOKES SECTION :)

Translated by me from https://www.socomic.gr/en/2018/01/kourafelkithra-socrates/
23. 4 points

## Is global average temperature a useful or thermodynamically valid concept?

Emphasis added. How fortunate the climate scientists provide an abundance of other information concerning temeprature variations in the oceans, the land and the atmosphere, locally and regionally, over the short term ( hours and days) to the long term (years, decades, millenia and beyond), relating it to such diverse issues as ocean currents, weather, atmospheric composition, albedo influences, etc. In short, you have erected a strawman upon which you are making a pointless and ill-informed attack.
24. 4 points

## What is the 3rd dimension?

This is quite ridiculous ... If you have a ruler ( a one dimensional line with numbers on it ) all you need is one number to specify any position on it. If you have a sheet of graph paper ( 2 dimensional numbered grid lines ) you need two numbers to specify any position on it. It is a simple mental jump to imagine a height above that sheet of graph paper with the same grid lines. That is the third dimension, and you now need three numbers to specify a location in that space above the sheet of graph paper. And should you want to assign variables to a specified location, you can call them x, y, and z. Dimensions are simply the directions you can move in a given space. Back and forth, side to side, and up down for 3 dimensional space.
25. 4 points

## The Official JOKES SECTION :)

That's the problem with Religions ( aside from political commentary ) and reminds me of an Emo Philips joke Once I saw this guy on a bridge about to jump. I said, “Don’t do it!” He said, “Nobody loves me.” I said, “God loves you. Do you believe in God?” He said, “Yes.” I said, “Are you a Christian or a Jew?” He said, “A Christian.” I said, “Me, too! Protestant or Catholic?” He said, “Protestant.” I said, “Me, too! What franchise?” He said, “Baptist.” I said, “Me, too! Northern Baptist or Southern Baptist?” He said, “Northern Baptist.” I said, “Me, too! Northern Conservative Baptist or Northern Liberal Baptist?” He said, “Northern Conservative Baptist.” I said, “Me, too! Northern Conservative Baptist Great Lakes Region, or Northern Conservative Baptist Eastern Region?” He said, “Northern Conservative Baptist Great Lakes Region.” I said, “Me, too! Northern Conservative Baptist Great Lakes Region Council of 1879, or Northern Conservative Baptist Great Lakes Region Council of 1912?” He said, “Northern Conservative Baptist Great Lakes Region Council of 1912.” I said, “Die, heretic!” And I pushed him over. ( reading it back to myself, it does seem much funnier in an Emo Philips voice )
26. 4 points

27. 4 points

## Discovery of millennium?! This could erase uncertainty!!!

Are you sure?
28. 4 points

## The Official JOKES SECTION :)

When someone tells me they’re a Christian, I ask: Classic Jesus, or Republican Jesus?
29. 4 points

## Interfering in other people's politics.

I suggest some research, even Wiki, of the Greece-Turkey tensions and conflicts, especially the Cyprus situation. It has briefly turned 'hot' a few times, but it is exactly because both are members of NATO ( Turkey is NOT EU ) that pressure could be brought to bear and hostilities stopped ( but tensions remain ). Similarly if Canada were attacked, the UK is duty bound ( NATO treaty ) to come to our aid, along with the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the rest of the 30 odd member states, including Poland, Hungry, Greece, Turkey and all of the former Yugoslav states. And no, Hungary was not part of NATO in 56, but of the Warsaw Pact. Australia and New Zealand, on the other hand, belong to SEATO, to which the US and UK were also signatories, but it hasn't been as successful' as NATO; it doesn't have its own headquarters/command and member states like French Indochina and Pakistan have dissolved or left. I would stress that NATO ( and to a much lesser extent SEATO ) is the military alliance since shortly after WW2, while the EU grew out of economic ( strictly ) European alliances that were formed during the 50s, and which C DeGaulle tried desperately to keep the UK out of ( until the 70s IIR ). It is NATO that has contributed to the peace; an attack on any member state is an attack on all of them. You don't think it was the EU that stopped Russian expansion of the Warsaw Pact ( more accurately Warsaw Occupied Possessions ) westward, do you ? The UK, as an independent state, will continue its downward spiral to irrelevance ( along with the other former European Great Powers ) in the face of competition from other resource rich states, like Russia, China, India, Brazil, and the North America block. A United Europe, though, has clout, power, and can't be pushed around by anyone. The UK could have remained a part of SOMETHING, instead you guys voted to become irrelevant, and go begging to others for trade deals. I can't wait until Prometheus has an opportunity to vote on re-joining the EU; hopefully the rest of you come to your senses in sooner than 20 years.
30. 4 points

Perhaps you’re right. I do find it interesting how through the years though, almost no matter the issue, you seem to find ways of placing all ownership and the entirety of responsibility for outcomes solely at the feet of Democrats.
31. 4 points

## Why black holes are "infinitely small"?

Ok, I get you now. This is not a trivial question, and the short truth is that we do not really know the answer, based on currently known physics. The trouble is this - the established model currently available to describe gravity (General Relativity, or GR for short) is purely classical, meaning it does not and cannot account for quantum effects. When we describe the process of gravitational collapse, then in the beginning stages of that process quantum effects can be neglected, so up to a certain point GR does a really good job in describing things. We can even cheat a bit, and extend the range for which our description is valid by considering already known quantum effects simply as classical pressures that counteract gravity. For suitable initial conditions, this may yield an equilibrium state such as a dwarf star, or a neutron star, or something more exotic like quark stars. However, once the total mass of the collapsing object exceeds a certain limit, there is no known mechanism by which the collapse could be stopped - in these cases the object keeps collapsing under its own gravity, and eventually becomes so dense that quantum gravitational effects can no longer be ignored. At that point General Relativity quite simply stops being a valid model. And this is where we get stuck, because we do not yet have a model of quantum gravity, so we simply do not know what happens in the final stages of such a collapse, and what happens to the mass of the original object. There are a few speculations, hypotheses and candidate models, but none of them is sufficiently well understood, or tested in any way. If we naively consider GR on its own, the end result of this collapse is a singularity - all the mass of the collapsing object becomes concentrated in a single point of infinite density, and infinite spacetime curvature. The ‘size’ of that infinity is always zero, regardless of how much mass you start out with, and regardless of how much mass falls into it later on. However, this is not to be understood as a physical prediction - in physics, when a model becomes singular and infinite, then that simply means that we have wrongly extended that model beyond its domain of applicability. In this particular case, we have attempted to apply a purely classical model to a physical situation that is decidedly not classical, so obviously the answer we get is not physically meaningful. Note that the singularity itself, for mathematical reasons, wouldn’t be part of the spacetime manifold, so counterintuitively the entire spacetime in and around a black hole of this kind would be completely empty. The mass of such a black hole is actually a global property of the entire spacetime, and cannot be localised anywhere. The volume of a singularity - in so far as that concept makes sense (it doesn’t, really) is zero. This is true for both point singularities, and ring singularities. Yes, in the purely classical picture of GR it would be matter compressed to infinite density. But we know (see above) that this is not a physical meaningful concept, since it cannot happen in the real universe. Even the already known laws of quantum physics prohibit such a state (ref e.g. the Pauli exclusion principle). Again, in the classical picture of GR the answer is no - the singularity remains point-like or ring-like. What does change though is the radius of the event horizon. When we look at current attempts to write out a model of quantum gravity (a very difficult problem!), then three main themes emerge, depending on which model is used: 1. Below a certain length scale, a new symmetry emerges that turns the collapse into a rebound - so the collapsing matter will never become singular, but instead begins to ‘bounce’ back out while the event horizon shrinks. However, due to the extreme time dilation in that region, this process would take a very long time (~100s of billions of years) as seen by an outside observer, which is why it has never been observed. 2. You end up with some sort of exotic degeneracy state below the horizon, such as a fuzzball. 3. Spacetime itself becomes quantised below a certain length scale, so the question as to what happens to the matter or where it goes becomes meaningless There is no telling at present if any of these possibilities describes what actually happens in the real world. Yes, but at the same time it will also continue to evaporate via Hawking radiation.
32. 4 points

## Examples of Awesome, Unexpected Beauty in Nature

Volcanic lightning is hard to beat. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_lightning Calbuco, The Awakening.” ... Calbuco Volcano is located in the lakes region south of Santiago, Chile’s capital city and is one of the 10 most dangerous volcanoes in the country. After more than 40 years of inactivity, the day April 23 the volcano erupts, spewing more than 200 million tons of ash https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/photos/national-geographic-photo-contest-2015/image-gallery/a2afa2087ecd4f4d62475d231b129e31
33. 4 points

## Are we facing a new pandemic next winter from covid mutations?

Attitudes such as these have led to over 800 thousand deaths and counting. It also the reason why folks do not vaccinate against influenza and thereby needlessly increasing death rates. It would only be sad, if folks who adhere to these beliefs were also the victims. Unfortunately dealing with diseases is a community effort.
34. 4 points

## Climate Change

My little bother just ate all the Scrabble tiles and his poop made more sense than you do.
35. 4 points

36. 4 points

## IQ rates are dropping in many developed countries

Citation needed. Maybe it is just compensation for the Flynn effect. I would guess the lack of a good definition of IQ and the corresponding arbitrariness of the tests accounts for a large part of it. Maybe modern communication technology and social media means that cultural change is happening faster and the tests can no longer be fudged quickly enough to compensate.
37. 4 points

## The world has changed...

I think you'd better take a good look around, Dim, and not how you imagine things. You might not like what you see.
38. 4 points

## Element 115 as Flying Saucer Fuel

After 8 seconds it said "This film is not presented as fact." So I did not watch the rest. Correct. I am not interested. But if anyone provides reliable scientific evidence about progress in our understanding of gravity (and/or anti gravity) I would be very interested. Warning: Straw man ahead: *) Replace alien technology with "magic", "psychic powers", "spirits", "life after death". The scientific content would be the same (zero).
39. 4 points

40. 4 points

## Vaccines and autism

The autism connection has been peer reviewed and the author of that has been discredited and struck off. He, to cut a long story short, had a financial interest in pursuing this position. Unfortunately, this myth has persisted and been magnified by the internet. Google 'andrew wakefield autism'
41. 4 points

## Cleaning Coins With Salt?

What up! I know I am about 16 years late but, I just wanted to point out that (like others have) @Tesseract was incorrect in saying that salt and vinegar makes hydrochloric acid. I dislike the spread of misinformation. Next time make sure something is correct before you post it to the internet. Also I made this account to post this. But I'm sure nobody will ever see this. I put so much time and effort into doing something so utterly pointless.
42. 4 points

## The Official JOKES SECTION :)

Great demonstration of why correlation is not causality:
43. 4 points

## men vs woman

While female and male brains have differences, it would be difficult to pick apart what is truly biological variance between populations and what is cultural conditioning. I vaguely recall a study that found female hippocampi were on average smaller than in males, which was said to explain why men were better navigators. But we also know parts of the brain less used will atrophy. So is it a case of their hippocampi being intrinsically smaller, or a result of gender roles directing its use (or lack of)? When women have risen to prominent historical roles they have pretty much done as men have done - Wu Zetian, Boudicca, Hypatia (but maybe that's because they emerged in patriarchies). There is also evidence of early societies that while not matriarchal, were more balanced. The Spartans are a probably the best documented example, and weren't significantly different from surrounding societies. I've also heard it said men more readily pursue risky pursuits, perhaps leading to voyages such as Colombus'. Assuming this is a neurobiological difference, it wouldn't necessarily preclude risky behaviour from men. Remember Colombus was sponsored by both Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, with the former willing to sell some jewels to fund it (thoough she didn't need to). War would still be conducted by men on the field; aside from differences in physiology making men on average more suited to those demands, sending women to fight would be a flawed strategy. The Romans lost ~300,000 men to Hannibal in the Punic wars from a total population of ~3.5 million - thats a huge proportion. If they had all been women of child-bearing potential Rome would almost certainly have fallen. Overall i don't think there'd be gross changes to the patterns of war, economic cycles, spiritual practices, technological development etc - just a lot of changed details which are impossible to guess at. They say men are from Mars and women from Venus, but we all know they're both from Earth.
44. 4 points

## Can someone please explain galaxies moving 5 times light speed and

Your only questions are sarcastic and unhelpful. Your assertions have mostly been wrong, and have been pointed out to you, but you've chosen to ignore them. You're rejecting explanations without reason, simply because they don't seem intuitive to you. This isn't personal, it isn't about you. It's your approach to learning that's causing a problem in discussions. I have to ask, is there any way to reason with you on this subject, or is your incredulity always going to be an impassable obstacle? How can we turn this discussion into a meaningful one? Several people have tried explaining what mainstream science says on this subject, but it's hard to have a conversation with you when half the effort is spent trying to get your fingers out of your ears.
45. 4 points

## Is this war with Iran?

The plane crash involved a Boeing 737-800NG, not the MAX but a previous version with stable aerodynamics and no computer override. The plane was 3 years old and had been in for maintenance on Monday. And Ukraine has suspended all flights into the area, but hasn't grounded similar 737-800NGs. I personally haven't seen it, but there are reports of a video showing the plane coming down engulfed in a fireball, and wreckage photos show puncture damage from either engine failure and breach of blades, or shrapnel. The plane was at 8000 ft when contact was lost and it disappeared from radar, but the ground elevation in the area is over 3000 ft, and it had made a sharp left turn as it climbed out at less than 5000 ft relative to ground elevation. At this point it would have been close to the Malard missile launch site. Given the circumstances, this does not seem to be a technical issue, even if there had been enough time to do an investigation ( usually takes months ), and engine failiures do not result in that type of a crash. I would assume, until evidence proves me wrong,, that the plane was warned not to overfly the missile launch site, but was mistaken by Iranian air defenses as incoming cruise missile or possibly even MANPAD launched in error at a low flying target. I have also seen reports of the 63 Canadians being mostly students from the Toronto area. Seems Iran's 'insignificant' response may have led to some very serious consequences, and the 'fog' of war has shown up again. May all 180 passengers RIP.
46. 4 points

## my hypothesis: dark matter observations are relative

A clock near a black hole ticks at “1 second per second”, a ruler near a black hole is “one meter per meter” long. A clock on Earth ticks at “1 second per second”, a ruler near Earth is “one meter per meter” long. Locally in their own small enough neighbourhoods, neither observer determines anything special to be happing. As the name already implies, relativistic effects become apparent only when you compare clocks and rulers in different frames - they are relationships between frames, not things in and of themselves that somehow happen to clocks and rulers. No clock will ever tick at anything other than “1 second per second”, and no ruler will ever measure anything other than “1 meter per meter”, within their own local frames. Time does not “slow”, space is not “stretched”, they merely become local concepts. It is crucially important to understand this point. So, in order to determine the geometry of spacetime, you need to either compare clocks and rulers at different events, or (equivalently) observe what happens when they traverse extended regions of spacetime. What you find then is that different observers may disagree on specific measurements of space and time, but they will always agree on how those measurements are related to one another. In other words - all observers agree on the geometry of spacetime. Mathematically speaking, the object that quantifies relevant aspects of the geometry of spacetime (in GR that is the Einstein tensor) is something that all observers agree on, regardless of where and when they are, or how they measure and determine it. The components of the tensor vary as you go from one observer to another, but they vary in such a way that the overall tensor remains the same one - that is the meaning of “covariance”.
47. 4 points

## Anti- science, science deniers and 'alt' science, do they have a growing following

I think there are certain parallels between people believing in conspiracy and religious belief (religion being, from a certain point of view, the ultimate conspiracy) As folks have pointed out from time to time, when people do not use reason to arrive at a position, you will not be able to use reason to talk them out if it. Studies have shown that presenting such people with contrary evidence only tends to harden their resolve.
48. 4 points

## Science is dogma (split from What is the Purpose of Life ?)

As a silent reader not actively involved in this thread, allow me to offer an observation. Your initial post had one or two points in it that are relevant and worthwhile, but unfortunately your tone and general presence here comes across as arrogant and condescending, You made at least one good point (and some not so good ones), but you failed to communicate them in a proper manner. Please take this as constructive criticism, i.e. an opportunity for growth.
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