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  2. Re-education camps don’t have a warm, cuddly history with regard to justice and human rights.
  3. Today
  4. If you threw everyone in jail that did not respect different races and cultures...wouldn't you have to lock yourself up as well? Or do you respect cultures of racism and bigotry?
  5. https://phys.org/news/2019-06-santorini-volcano-terrestrial-analogue-mars.html The Greek island of Santorini is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, but 3,600 years ago it suffered one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history. Among the material that was exposed, scientists have now found rocks similar to those of Mars. "In the Balos Cove, located to the south of the island, we have discovered basalts such as those that have been identified by the rovers on Mars and with properties similar to those of certain meteorites from the red planet and those of terrestrial rocks classified as Martian analogues," says Ioannis Baziotis, a researcher at the Agricultural University of Athens and co-author of the study, recently published in Icarus. more at link..... the paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S001910351830681X?via%3Dihub Santorini volcano as a potential Martian analogue: The Balos Cove Basalts: Αbstract The interpretation of geologic processes on Mars from sparse meteorite, remote sensing and rover data is influenced by knowledge gained from well-characterized terrestrial analogues. This calls for detailed study of candidate terrestrial analogues and comparison of their observable features to those encountered on the surface of Mars. We evaluated the mineralogical, geochemical, and physical properties of the Balos covebasalts (BCB) from the island of Santorini and compared them to Martian meteorites, Mars rover surface measurements, and other verified Martian analogues obtained from the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR). Twenty rock samples were collected from the Balos cove area based on their freshness, integrity, and basaltic appearance in the field. Optical microscopy of BCB revealed a pilotaxitic to trachytic texture, with olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a fine groundmass of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, and devitrified glass. All major minerals show normal zoning, including calcic plagioclase (An78–85 at the core and An60–76 at the rim), augite(En36-48Wo41-44Fs11–21), and olivine (Fo74–88). The dominant bands in the infrared-attenuated total reflectance (IR-ATR) spectra from BCB can be assigned to olivine (~875 cm−1), calcic plagioclase (~1130 cm−1), and augite (~970 cm−1). The whole-rock chemical compositions and mineralogy of the BCB are similar to published analyses of typical olivine-phyric shergottites and basalts and basaltic materials analyzed in Gusev and Gale craters on Mars. BCB porosity is in the range of 7–15% and is similar to the porosities of the ISAR samples. Although no terrestrial rock is ever a perfect match to Martian compositions, the differences in mineralogy and geochemistry between BCB and some classes of Martian samples are relatively subtle and the basalts of Santorini are as close a match as other accepted Mars basalt analogues. The Santorini site offers excellent field logistics that, together with the petrology of the outcrop, makes it a valuable locality for testing and calibration deployments, field training, and other activities related to current and future Mars exploration.
  6. @swansont Replication can demonstrate what the utility or lack thereof of this device/process. Spaceheater? Perhaps.
  7. CharonY

    The inconvenient truth about genetics

    I think you are just seeing the same issue from different perspectives. The DNA encodes required proteins (though again, it does not encode the required metabolites, such as nucleotides, amino acids etc, though it does encode the machinery involved in acquiring and synthesizing it), but it requires the presence of a fully functional cell background (with the machinery in place) to produce them. This is the chicken or egg problem as as without everything already provided by the cell (or having an incompatible cellular set up) the program will stall. Likewise, not providing required nutrient will inhibit the production of said machinery. I.e. if you nitrogen (or phosphate) limitation, translation/transcription will not proceed and it does not matter that the genome has all the information to produce all the proteins required for nitrogen/phosphate uptake. Plus there is increasing awareness that the cellular content plays an important role in the trajectory of cells, which might play an important role in asymmetric cellular aging. I.e. depending on what cellular component each daughter cell inherits (as the content is not necessarily divided perfectly equally), they may have different growth trajectories. So despite the fact that both cells inherit the same DNA, one may remain highly active, whereas the other one gets all the crap and heads to apoptosis. So yes, the basic genetic material is without doubt present and inherited within the DNA. However, its expression and the translation into a given phenotype is highly dependent on the intracellular (and extracellular) content.
  8. https://phys.org/news/2019-06-physics-life-d-universe.html Researcher shows physics suggests life could exist in a 2-D universe by Bob Yirka , Phys.org James Scargill, a physicist at the University of California, has written a paper reporting that the laws of physics allow for the existence of a life-supporting two-dimensional universe. MIT's Technology Review has reviewed the paper and found that the work does show that such a 2+1 universe could exist. Because we live in three-dimensions, it is difficult for us to envision a universe in which the third dimension does not exist—or one in which there is a fourth or fifth dimension. But philosophers and physicists have spent a lot of time and work trying to figure out if life could exist in anything but the three dimensions we know. In such discussions, time is also included, which has led to the description of what we experience as a 3+1-dimensional universe. more at link..... the paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05336.pdf Can Life Exist in 2 + 1 Dimensions? Abstract: There are anthropic reasons to suspect that life in more than three spatial dimensions is not possible, and if the same could be said of fewer than three, then one would have an anthropic argument for why we experience precisely three large spatial dimensions. There are two main arguments levelled against the possibility of life in 2 + 1 dimensions: the lack of a local gravitational force and Newtonian limit in 3D general relativity, and the claim that the restriction to a planar topology means that the possibilities are ‘too simple’ for life to exist. I will examine these arguments and show how a purely scalar theory of gravity may evade the first one, before considering certain families of planar graphs which share properties which are observed in real-life biological neural networks and are argued to be important for their functioning. Conclusions: In this paper I have considered the two main arguments which are commonly presented against the possibility of complex life in 2 + 1 dimensions: the absence of a local gravitational force in three-dimensional general relativity, and that the topological restrictions placed by requiring planarity are too severe to allow complex life. The first can be avoided by changing the gravitational theory. As a proof-of-principle I have presented a purely scalar theory of gravity which allows stable orbits around point sources, and has a not-obviously-fatal (though unusual) cosmology; it could potentially be improved by making the whole metric dynamical. One could also imagine a brane-world scenario in which the massless graviton is not localised to the brane, thus allowing two-dimensional life to enjoy fully four-dimensional gravity. To deal with the second objection I have turned to research that has been conducted into the properties of biological neural networks, and created a family of planar graphs (the ‘cycle-based’ ones from section 3.1.3) which seem to exhibit many of the properties which have been conjectured to be important for complex brains. In particular they are approximately ‘small-world,’ they have a hierarchical and modular construction, and they show evidence of the stretching (in parameter space) of a critical point into a finite critical region for certain stochastic processes. It should be noted that whilst this is certainly suggestive of the possibility of complex brains in two dimensions, it is not conclusive, as it likely that the properties described above are not sufficient on their own. Therefore more work is needed to compare the graphs presented here with real-life neural networks (and also to include edge weights and directions, which have been neglected here), as well as to consider further families of planar graphs, in order to arrive at a more complete understanding of the possibility of complex brains in two dimensions. Overall it would seem that if one wishes to use anthropic reasoning to explain the observed dimensionality of space-time, then the possibility of life in 2+1 dimensions requires further investigation. In particular it would be interesting to determine if there might be other impediments to life which have so far been overlooked, as well as to continue to search for non-anthropic explanations for the dimensionality of space-time. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Don't like it, but hey! it's only me!
  9. Since some of primers I designed did not work well, what should I do rather than resign them ? Which software I need to use to resign, the same as the previous one or the new one? Thank you for your quick reply. Last time , I just use primer 3 plus.
  10. John Cuthber

    The inconvenient truth about genetics

    YOu seem to want the word "egg" bolded.OK, whatever floats your boat. Now, what part of an egg isn't made from proteins and stuff that are coded in DNA? And the really cool thing is that the DNA codes for the machinery that reads the DNA. It's such a neat idea that people even tried to copy it. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RepRap_project It's good to see that you agree that the lipids and stuff are also all controlled by the DNA, albeit indirectly. I'm still waiting for someone to answer my question. If the data's not in the DNA, where is it? (for extra credit, how is it encoded and transmitted to the next generation?)
  11. Hrvoje1

    Epistemological Question

    OK, maybe my question is such that you don't intend to answer. On the other hand, some people don't react unless notified about their quoting, or react very slowly, so to catalyze a bit your response:
  12. nevim

    Today I Learned

    Because it doesn’t seem that way to me. Might to other people though, I suppose.
  13. DanielBoyd

    The inconvenient truth about genetics

    Hi Ken, Good questions for clarification. I'm not actually saying that mainstream genetics is unworkable: mainstream genetics typically doesn't concern itself with this broader question, but with the many (very relevant and useful) details of what genetics actually does do. I in no way intend to belittle the importance of this research. As to my incredulity, the thing about the genome is that in it's basic working it is actually very simple: there's not much to understand. It's a string of codes that are used directly to zip amino acids together in a particular order. This has been known for a long time, and is so clear that it allows us to also clearly conclude what it isn't. Since geneticists are busy enough investigating what what it does do, this question is seldom addressed. In the 80's Susan Oyama started a line of research called developmental systems theory that took a step beyond the classical genetics/epigenetics framework, but this didn't really take off in spite of much interest at the time. Perhaps I'm just trying to revive her legacy! As to how cells and organisms form if it is not through genetic design, I think any god who did exist would be smart enough not to burden him/herself with such tasks! No, I'm a staunch atheist, so that is most definitely not the direction I am heading. My proposed alternative to genetic design is not some other form of design but self-assembly.
  14. Perhaps we need to imprison people like you. Anyone who advocates prison for what people think should not be walking free.
  15. CharonY

    Autosomal recessive or dominant?

    That is correct. The overall likelihood is of course difficult to ascertain with limited data and can depend on a lot of different factors, including prevalence in a specific population group.
  16. John Cuthber

    Today I Learned

    So is ονοματοποιημένος Any particular reason?
  17. Why don't we try listening instead? It's called Democracy, I don't agree with them but I feel it's important that they can if they want to. At what point does someone become racist enough to go to prison? What about Trump supporters, there not all racists but some of them come close, where's the line. I'm pretty sure at some point we'd all come close. American prison gangs and their impact would be a good example why prison would be a bad idea. Although that's American prisons. Norway prisons have some of the safest and lowest re-offending rates in the world (20%) by focusing on rehabilitation and restorative justice which is basically education (to me). Any examples of less important things? Your English is fine.
  18. John Cuthber

    to make green

    What do you mean by that?
  19. How long would they need to jail you for (in spite of your having done nothing wrong) before you came to respect them?
  20. The OP has used their first day limit of 5 posts, so I'll be back tomorrow to hear more.
  21. Actually, we imprison people for being poor, whereas the wealthy can engage in the same exact behavior and only pay a fine / have the item completely expunged from their record... but it's too far off topic to be discussed further here. Racism... Is jail the solution? No. Next topic...
  22. Do we? It seems we mostly imprison people through fear of potential actions rather than actual ones.
  23. Phi for All

    A question about lizard limb regeneration.

    That's not what I got from that. "Restoring to full functionality" doesn't mean "reversed the aging process". I didn't read anything about changing the age of any cells to match with any other cells. It sounds more like the salamanders can regenerate the bond with a severed limb, but sometimes a blastema also forms, growing an extra limb (eye, brain parts, etc) from the cells. It's clear that transplants between individual salamanders works, but it doesn't sound like there is any deterioration due to age being reversed in the regeneration process.
  24. We imprison people for actions, not thoughts or beliefs.
  25. I disagree. Can you show where there has been ZERO progress on racist behavior through education and protest? I think you're using a definition of "effective" that will always be hard to attain. I think progress is slow, slower than I'd like, but NOT non-existent. We already do in many countries when racism becomes active discrimination. Laws prohibit using ethnicity to unfairly make distinctions in business and government. I'd be very careful about allowing laws that enforce "respect". The law needs to be very clear, and current laws focus on acts of discrimination rather than attitude. I suppose it's similar to what some propose for drug laws. We already have laws against reckless driving, assault, and other crimes those on drugs often commit. Why do we also need laws against possessing the drugs themselves? What about people who take drugs but don't commit other crimes? Similarly, why aim laws at racists who don't actively discriminate? Are you saying that "feeling" racist is the same as "acting" racist? Who gets to decide how people feel about other ethnicities, and how do they do it, what criteria do they use? It's my answer for most of societies woes, but I think education is a better way to address this problem. Putting people in prison should be MUCH more thoughtful, and never part of a knee-jerk reaction.
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