# All Activity

1. Past hour
2. ## What is more common in nature, regularities or irregularities?

Actually, I was solving first order difference equation $\Delta(x_{n-1})=n$ while you proposed second order difference equation $\Delta^2(x_n)=1$, which are equivalent and have the same closed-form solution, which can be shown like this: $\Delta(x_{n-1})=x_n-x_{n-1}=n \implies \Delta(x_n)=n+1 \implies \Delta(x_{n+1})=n+2$ $\Delta^2(x_n)=\Delta(x_{n+1})-\Delta(x_n)=n+2-(n+1)=1$

According to this picture there exist a certain bandgap (over 1 eV) in Lead between the lowest band (which I assume corresponds to some hole states) and all other bands (which I assume correspond to all other electron and hole states). Does it mean that Lead is a unique metal with band gap between a hole and electron states? Does it suppose to have some semiconducting properties then? https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Color-online-Calculated-band-structure-of-bulk-lead-with-solid-lines-and-without_fig1_45935753

5. Today
6. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

! Moderator Note Right. The problem isn't that you have posted something that contains a few buzzwords but no real physics. It with everyone else for pointing that out. ! Moderator Note Terminology, as well an not including any real physics, and being wrong about some of your claims. ! Moderator Note If you were 15, I would telly to to take physics when you get the chance in school, and then when you go to college, take more physics classes. You can't hand-wave your way through this. You would probably be better served asking questions and learning how physics works.
7. ## The Problem of Omnipotence

What is is good that it seems to be possible even we can not absolutely execute it yet. It seems to me as an absolutely balanced system from the subatomic structure until the general structure of the universe. Yet we do not understand wherefrom Energy and Matter is originating so obviously it is difficult to recognize the exact functions the system is acting upon. Relativity just needs a fine tuning (apply it within mathematics?) to become absolute reality.
8. ## DNA basepair sequence length spectrum of bacteria?

Thank you. I see its gonna be a lot of work even for the most simple organisms as expected. My plan is to write an artificial neural network, which can process huge amounts of simple inputs (the inputs will be numbers from 0-3 for each base). On the other side I'll use as many characteristics of the specific organism. To specify what each basepair or rather any possible combination sequence means and if it has any impact I need many different DNA sequences of organisms with same and completely different characteristics. The biggest problems which I still need to solve are the different lengths of the DNA (different amounts of input) and a good way of categorizing the output in a proper way
9. ## DNA basepair sequence length spectrum of bacteria?

I am not entirely sure what you are looking for, do you want to find the sequences of specific organisms? https://science.sciencemag.org/content/277/5331/1453 shows the length of the E. Coli genome: 4,639,221 basepairs NCBI contains the sequences of many organisms: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/U00096 Encode is database containing elements of DNA, which should help you with the characteristics of the DNA https://www.encodeproject.org/ If I may ask, what do you mean by "decoding the DNA"? -Dagl
10. ## DNA basepair sequence length spectrum of bacteria?

I am interested in decoding DNA so I'm looking for information about the sequence length of DNA. Or more particular the actual sequenced DNA of hundreds of simple organisms plus their characteristics. Since the world biogenome project started there should be many publications of such information but I couldn't find any. Does anyone know were to get this kind of data? Thanks in advance
11. ## Book of Enoch (decryption)

Do you realize it is quantum physicists forum? You should go here and ask questions like "how to disintegrate atom XXX *?" Then there would be some senseful discussion going.. *) XXX replace by some e.g. isotope of some element.. There is 3134 isotopes ATM.
12. ## Book of Enoch (decryption)

The ancient Book of Enoch tells about two hundred angels (they called themselves Watchers), who descended to Earth. They explained Enoch the calendar, which he recorded, "but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is for to come". What was hidden in the calendar for future generations? I was able to find the answer to this question. Now the millennia-old story begun by Enoch is completed. Find out more in these videos.
13. ## My 5 year old loves atoms. What now?

@Ghideon It is brilliant idea for a game for (and with) a child! +1. Let him or her build the molecule with balls-n-sticks, and search on-line what it is actually and read what it is doing. This is quite an interesting, innovative and not boring way to learn chemistry.
14. Yesterday
15. ## Variations and consequences of the Laws of Thermodynamics

Thank you for this detailed reply. Here are my initial thoughts, more detail to follow as it is late here. The point I am making is that entropy increases when you consider the entropy of the system plus the entropy of the surroundings. System B is (by definition) part of the surroundings to system A at the beginning of your process, since it is not part of system A. System B is also isolated from system A. During the process systems A and B amalgamate to form system C, which is again isolated from the rest of the universe. This is therefore not the system you started with, unless you choose to so adopt it, instead of system A. This approach has the advantage that isolation (of system C = the system) is maintained at all times. But the volume of system C does not change so ln(V2/V1) = 0 and classical thermodynamics is upheld. Alternatively you can start with system A alone as the system. In this case you loose the isolation the moment you remove the barrier between system A and some of its surroundings. If you calculate the number of microstates in the enlarged system from Boltzman's Law then you will find that the increase in W more than compensates for the loss of entropy in system A alone as a result of the mass efflux.
16. ## Variations and consequences of the Laws of Thermodynamics

I regard this as a definition issue. I had assumed that, as in many other fields, thermodynamics could have two or more subsystems comprising one system, but all I could find was systems. From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamic_system I'll refer to your diagram and labelling to avoid confusion. The system A (i.e. the contents of chamber A) has a volume of x cubic units. The system B (i.e. the contents of chamber B) has a volume of y-x cubic units. The system C, which is the contents of chamber A plus the contents of chamber B, has a volume of y cubic units. System A contains ideal gas in equilibrium at a temperature $T= \frac {2U}{ 3Nk}$. System B is a vacuum. Just before the start of my scenario the barrier between system A and system B is almost instantaneously removed and taken outside both systems with no significant effect (at that instant) on any of the three systems. More plausible scenarios for this action can be devised. Classically, such things can be done with an arbitrarily small effect on the system. Without the barrier, at the start of my scenario, system A, still instantaneously in equilibrium, has entropy $\displaystyle S = Nk \Bigg(\ln\bigg(\frac{V_x}{N}\Big(\frac{4 \pi mU}{3Nh^2}\Big)^\frac{3}{2}\bigg)+\frac{5}{2}\Bigg)$ System B has entropy $0\frac{J}{K}$. As entropy is an extensive property﻿, the entropy of System C is the sum of the entropies of system A and system B. Do you agree? Ignoring intermediate steps for now, system C eventually reaches thermal equilibrium. Its entropy is $\displaystyle S = Nk \Bigg(\ln\bigg(\frac{V_y}{N}\Big(\frac{4 \pi mU}{3Nh^2}\Big)^\frac{3}{2}\bigg)+\frac{5}{2}\Bigg)$ The change in entropy is $\Delta S = nK \ln\big(\frac {y}{x}\big)$ Its temperature is the same as system A's original temperature i.e. $T= \frac {2U}{ 3Nk}$, since neither U nor N has changed. No net work has been done. Intermediate steps: and You seem to be saying that if e.g. the left wall of the chamber was rigid, adiabatic and movable, entropy increase would happen since compressing the gas from volume y back down to volume x would be possible i.e. reversing the process; if the left wall is not movable the expansion process is IMO unchanged but entropy cannot increase since the process is irreversible.... From your source http://www.splung.com/content/sid/6/page/secondlaw i.e. since my example is neither perfectly efficient at producing work nor a closed thermodynamic cycle entropy increases. IMO some of the above quotes are inconsistent with this: I'm not sure if all these are your views or partly representation of Timo's views. I'm avoiding quoting Timo since we seem to agree with him but draw different conclusions. The above quote is arguably inconsistent with I took that a bit casually; of course the gas cooling was not work. All work done ends up becoming heat as the system approaches equilibrium. In short, the system evolution is not in practice describable with any accuracy but the entropy increases monotonically from the initial state to the final equilibrium state. More I could say but not now...
17. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

Yes but a scale of mass is not very complex. There are other far more complicated objects around.
18. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

well, amount of mass could equal complexity.
19. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

Such dramatics are not requested. Yes I realised that I missed out making it clear I was referring to your idea so I added those words as an edit. I'm sorry if that threw you. The idea I'm referring to is the idea that Yes I think they, like many other 'object' I have tried to talk to you about do not inhabit spacetime. So I think you are right there. But you also say because of their size and I disagree with this part. I think they belong in another framework because of their complexity. They do indeed have a common point of intersection between their world and spacetime. But the two 'worlds' only touch at one common point. That is how they interact with each other.
20. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

Set whatever equations you got to say unmeasured QM objects are devoid of spacetime.
21. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

It does not need to be a new theory, did someone claim that? But the following suggested that some major answers (and hence progress of existing theories) was intended:
22. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

I'm either drunk or you edited your post ..doesn't matter. Do you want me to beg?
23. ## why/how a particle can go into superposition

I don't understand what you mean.