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  • Birthday 02/09/1955

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  • Gender
  • Location
    Colorado State University
  • Interests
    Saving humanity/civilization, Gaia theory, biochemistry and biophysics, earth sciences, cosmology, history, economics, ecology, sociology, psycholgy, feminism, anthropology, philosophy, citizenship, agriculture, soil sciences, microbiology, evolution, religion, genetics, epigenetics, humus, biochar, graphene, Artificial Intelligence, networking, Type I civilization, C.P. Snow, E.O. Wilson, Klaus Kinder-Geiger, Stephen J. Pyne, Steven Stoll, Charles C. Mann, biogeochemistry, and climate science. Sustainability issues.
  • College Major/Degree
    BSc in Chem/Biochem from CSU via UNLV & George Mason Univ.
  • Favorite Area of Science
    Biochemistry, Carbon-cycle ecology, and all.
  • Biography
    Univ. Research Library, Preservation.
  • Occupation
    connecting good science with good citizenship
  1. Global Warming is Opinion

    I included the picture to show that hockeysticks also abound throughout global change research, but only as a way of suggesting that Mann's hockeystick shouldn't be surprising. If you want to pursue those graphs, we could start a new topic. Otherwise, we could move on to the point about Mann's famous graph, and how it is still a valid graph. The original hockeystick has been superseded by other more extensive and accurate studies, I'm fairly sure; and they show the same results, don't they? Maybe I've missed some new research or conclusions, so please (anybody) post new information that will correct my general understanding of the situation.
  2. Global Warming is Opinion

    Do you mean you want the original source of the data, which the IPCC then vetted and collected for presentation; or do you mean you don't trust the embedded address of the image?
  3. Global Warming is Opinion

    If you will 'right click' on the picture, you can copy the image address: So, it appears to be from the IPCC's AR4 report, in Switzerland.
  4. Global Warming is Opinion

    Though not persuasive, I was aware of the report’s online controversy, and my impression of what actually happened was mostly formed through occasional updates from the mainstream science journals. If I recall correctly: Somebody questioned part of the hockeystick data, which had been adjusted to compensate for the effect of the “recent” rise in CO2 on tree growth. That happens in science—where somebody will challenge some data or methods or conclusions—and it’s the way science is supposed to work. The work was examined and reviewed, as is normally done in science, and Mann’s accounting for recent tree-growth changes was found to be valid. And those changes were also verified later by other researchers. Due to the controversy, that subset of data under scrutiny was removed from the final, as well as updated versions, of the hockeystick graph. But even when the questioned data was removed from the final report, the overall shape of the graph remained the same—as a hockeystick. Did you know that? Though questioned, the famous graph was never invalidated in the real world. And it remains valid to this day in the world of verifiably-sourced information. Other reconstructions of temperatures over the past few millennia show a similar hockeystick pattern—as do graphs of our greenhouse gas emissions. ~
  5. Human Evolution Timeline and Feet:

    Interestingly, it may have been easier to get to the location of these fossils, from Africa, around 5.7 million years ago. "The Mediterranean Salinity Crisis (MSC) ...began approximately 6 million years ago (MYA) and lasted until around 5.3 MYA – a time span of well over a half million years." "Scientists believe that by 5.59 MYA, the ocean floor had been raised high enough to become an area of land that completely separated the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean." The timing suggests Crete and Africa may have been more closely linked when those imprints were made. ~
  6. Climate Change

    Here is an example where the Univ of Michigan compares "other influences" to a baseline excluding the other influences. ~
  7. Graphene spatial separation

    Ingesting electrons (and holes) occurs with all foods, doesn’t it? Think about salt. Supplementing the diet with medicinal charcoal should provide some graphene, since the char is essentially like "inertinite" macerals, and thus contains graphene. Fig. 7. Structure of biochar with different functional groups present on its surface (Adapted and redrawn from Brennan et al., 2001; Lehmann and Joseph, 2009). ~
  8. The Pope might suggest that AGW is intrinsically linked to the level of consumption by that population, rather than the actual level of human population. It is the footprint of the population, for good or bad, that makes the difference. As the Pope said in his encyclical, Laudato Si: “The pace of consumption, waste and environmental change has so stretched the planet’s capacity that our contemporary lifestyle, unsustainable as it is, can only precipitate catastrophes, such as those which even now periodically occur in different areas of the world.” –161 “The impact of present imbalances is also seen in the premature death of many of the poor, in conflicts sparked by the shortage of resources, and in any number of other problems which are insufficiently represented on global agendas.” –48 The Pope also mentions how certain populations “…need to acknowledge the scandalous level of consumption in some privileged sectors of their population….” –172 “In the end, a world of exacerbated consumption is at the same time a world which mistreats life in all its forms.” --230 "What is needed is a politics which is far-sighted and capable of a new, integral and interdisciplinary approach to handling the different aspects of the crisis." –197 Ultimately, I think you’ll agree that…. ”There can be no ecology without an adequate anthropology.” –118 “The poor and the earth are crying out.” –246 ~
  9. Climate change

    Greenhouse gases can be considered a type of pollution, but the toxic effects of pollutants directly on organisms and local or regional ecosystems is usually a separate topic from the global effects of climate change caused by human activity. Some pollutants, such as soot or sulfates, can also contribute to climate change. Some greenhouse gases can have toxic effects on organisms or ecosystems, so the definitions can be problematic. Is there a specific homework problem you are working on, or are you asking about these questions in general? ~
  10. Here is a good introduction. Just click on "Schedule" for a list of links to each lecture. The first five chapters seem to cover the questions you are asking about. Plus, the "Toy Models" link is fun to play with too. ~
  11. Solutions for global heating?

    Here's a review for the video from your post: Some people can't (or don't want to) view videos, so a short summary and/or some quotes would be nice, and iirc, technically it is required by forum rules. Since the review doesn't have the solution that you mentioned, could you provide a quote or summary that explains this part about "how to solve global warming?" In addition to what you've mentioned above, some scientists have also figured out ways to convert CO2 into graphene, for building materials, or even converting CO2 into fuels. Plus there is the old traditional method of turning CO2 into charcoal (via pyrolysis of biomass), which has many co-benefits including the great improvements to sustainable agricultural practices. Workable answers are available, but (socio-politically) workable implementations are not yet widely enough available. ~
  12. There seem to be many mechanisms that drive evolution, or at least the rapid development of specific adaptations, beyond the regular rate of “new trait” development that comes simply from random mutations. Mechanisms for human genomic rearrangements: [2008] Mechanisms of change in gene copy number: [2009] I recall reading about a mechanism that duplicates certain genes and then transposes the copies to a new location where they then undergo extra mutation, while the originals maintain normal function, as in the 2009 link above. This was, iirc about 6-8 years ago, thought to be unique to humans and one other primate, and the genes affected were located in an area associated with development of the digestive tract during embryogenesis. This seemed especially interesting at the time, after also having heard that some of the same genes used during embryogenesis of the digestive system were also used later during gestation in the embryogenesis of brain systems. So istm, pressures to change diet could affect brain development in more than just a nutritional manner. === Googling the terms, indel human unique mechanism of action, brought up the 2008 link above, plus other interesting links. Following a suggested term from that search, “fork stalling and template switching,” brought up the 2009 link above, plus other.... Searching other terms from within these two links, such as recombination hotspot, should be even more interesting. ~
  13. hijack from Q regarding evolution and creation

    See? You're still treating the emergence of complexity as a totally random event, instead of seeing how complexity emerges fairly easily out of any system composed of simple, diverse, robust, chaotic parts. Do you see the big difference? ~
  14. hijack from Q regarding evolution and creation

    Sure, it is not simple to create a protein, or any complexity, but the beautiful complexities and stability are built up from simple parts following simple rules. And there is not much diversity among those simple parts and rules, but just enough to make things interesting and unpredictable. Being "robust" is just a measure of how strongly the simple parts will resist change and how strongly the simple rules will stay the same. Being "chaotic" refers to the freedom for parts to mix and match in different ways and times, but also within certain relatively strong yet simple limits. And out of that simple chaos, stable complexity is born, the beauty of proteins and planets and people is born, and a diversity much much more vast than the puny diversity of the original parts is also born. ...or words to that effect ~
  15. hijack from Q regarding evolution and creation

    That can't be right, unless you are just talking about random processes, instead of unidirectional, natural processes. Actually the laws are not too many, and they are all fairly simple, acting directly and immediately. There are many examples showing that stable complexity will emerge whole, out from any limited but energized collection of simple, diverse, robust, and chaotic “building blocks.”