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  2. The pH of a mixture of 15 mL of 0.1 M NaOH with 25 mL 0.1 M HBZ is: Ka=6.28x10-5 The correct answer is 4.38, but I keep coming up with 4.42. If someone could should me how to get to 4.38 that would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!
  3. The pH of a mixture of 15 mL of 0.1 M NaOH with 25 mL 0.1 M HBZ is: Ka=6.28x10-5 The correct answer is 4.38, but I keep coming up with 4.42. If someone could should me how to get to 4.38 that would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!
  4. Does a binary black hole merger have an em signal? Might this latest observation bring closer capturing a binary black hole merger using that em or optical signal?
  5. Well, yes---I should have said something like "very limited control over the environment"
  6. Today
  7. Estimate the size of our universe

    This does not seem like it includes Universe Expansion by the Hubble constant, the speeds of some particles would actually exceed the speed of light due to Universe expansion. you cannot just say, Δt * C = Δr you would be completely assuming no expansion of this 4D sphere's manifold, this would work for a static universe but not a expanding one. Δr = Δt * C + (H * Δt)/1000 would be non static, the divided by 1000 is due to hubble's constant being in kilometers per second per megaparsec.
  8. Gravity. Please knock this down

    I don't see how you arrived at that conclusion. I would say that it's related to the difference in volume of the sphere, divided by the difference in the radius, which means it's proportional to the inverse square.
  9. ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF OUR UNIVERSE USING DATA FROM COSMIC EVENTS.pdf ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF OUR UNIVERSE USING DATA FROM COSMIC EVENTS Assumptions: 1. Our 3-D universe is on the surface of a 4-D globe. 2. Gravitational wave travels within the 4-D globe at speed of light. 3. Gamma-ray, as well as other electromagnetic waves, travels along the surface of the 4-D globe. As illustrated above, X is the distance of the cosmic event; R is the radius of our 4-D globe; C is speed of light; t is the time difference between detection of gravitational wave and gamma-ray. X – 2R*sin(X/2R) = C*t On 8/17/2017, gravitational wave GW170817 was detected. 1.7 seconds later, gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A was detected. The binary stars are 40 Mpc (130 Mly) away. Put these numbers together, the radius of our 4-D globe is around 1015LY (1000 trillion light-years). The estimate could be more accurate with more and more cosmic events being recorded.
  10. Is the Universe infinite?

    Hrrm how to explain e-folding. It is in essence a doubling of volume with a time derivitave. The constant e is a derived constant. See here https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/E_(mathematical_constant) in essence the universe increased in volume roughly [latex]10^{26}[/latex] to save you the calculations. Assuming 60 e-folds. More accurately distances increased by a factor 10^26.
  11. Yesterday
  12. Is the Universe infinite?

    I doubt it was wrong (a link would be nice). Not sure why you think it would be.... The oldest galaxy I can find a reference to is about 13.4 billion years old: https://www.spacetelescope.org/news/heic1604/ For local galaxies it is entirely the result of relative motion (Doppler shift). For example, Andromeda is moving towards us. This is known as "proper motion". For distant galaxies the cosmological redshift (due to expansion) dominates.
  13. Microwave Background Radiation???

    By released, the density was such that prior to the "release". That the mean free path of photons was approximately [latex]10^-32 metres[/latex] if I recall correctly. epoch commonly called dark ages under Cosmology. We cannot get messurements of nor past this epoch. Once atoms started forming the average density decreased enough that photons could travel far enough to reach us today. We can see the haze, via a combination of Hubble and strong gravitational lenses.
  14. As stated before, I was looking into an extended equivalence principle and was investigating the destruction of the worldlines inside of black holes. Here is a paper that illustrates finding methods of unitarity preservation for entangled particles for black hole physics. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10701-016-0014-y ''Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, but globally not: we explain why Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole must be 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. This produces exclusively pure quantum states evolving in a unitary manner, and removes the interior region for the outside observer, while it still completely agrees locally with the laws of general relativity. '' I was looking for explanations outside of those that lead to information paradoxes. It seems they argue they have a way to preserve unitarity inside of the black hole. Recall what I said on the issue of unitarity and black holes; ''Semi-classical gravity does infer a situation which complicates the subject of unitarity within black holes physics. The evolution of two states after forming the black holes are identical, leading to a mixed state obtained through integrating the thermal Hawking radiation states. It leads to the information paradox.The problem with this is that the final states are identical - we cannot recover the initial state of the evolution just by knowing the final state, even in principle. This contradicts unitarity evolution in quantum mechanicshttps://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.6348.pdfIn principle unitarity preserves the ability to recover the initial state if we know the final state by applying a subject we have talked about, the inverse of the time evolution ''' Paper by t'Hooft no less.
  15. 0÷0

    It depends on the calculation. Adding 0 or multiplying by 0 are well-defined. Arguably, doing any arithmetic with infinity is wrong but, again, you can say what happens in most cases except division. Note that there is a whole area of maths that deals with infinity (in fact, the infinite number of different infinities).
  16. Microwave Background Radiation???

    To add to that, it took about 360,000 years for the universe to cool enough so that it became transparent to light and the CMB radiation was "released". At that point, the temperature was about 3000K.
  17. Microwave Background Radiation???

    No its a bit more complex than that. After the first 10^-43 sec. Inflation occurs, this caused a rapid supercooling via the ideal gas laws. However inflation didn't instantly stop but slow rolls to a stop. This event caused a rapid reheating stage. Now the volume has increased exponentially so particles will become stable, ie drop out of thermal equilibrium. The temperature is low enough that atoms can now form. This removes a large percentage of free ptotons neutrons and electrons. Thus reducing the opacity of the CMB, this is the surface of last scattering. The uniformity we observe is due to the rapid expansion supercooling and slow roll reheating in such a short time frame, that temp/mass density anistropies didn't have time to redeveloped after being evenly redistributed.
  18. Is the Universe infinite?

    Thank you Mordred and Strange, you have given me a number of links to check out! I have two other questions. First, so a recent NASA press release that said that they had observed the most distant galaxy yet, at a distance of 13.8 billion light-years, was wrong? Secondly, is the red-shift we observe with most galaxies strictly the result of the relative motion of the galaxies relative to space, or does it include the effect of the expansion of space too? Cheers. What is "60 e folds"?
  19. 0÷0

  20. The Energy which an Elecron generates IS:

    Any chance you can back that assertion up with something other than your own baseless assertions?
  21. Microwave Background Radiation???

    But was this background microwave radiation emitted at the time of the start of the big bang or is it from the universe itself "currently" radiating in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum because of the universe's "current" temperature???
  22. The end of the quantum vacuum catastrophe ?

    I did a lot with the equation of state in my own investigations, especially in the non-zero value context which was required for the non-conservation of a dynamically expanding fluid. The zero context of it was the first assumption of Friedmann (maybe influenced by Noether) and it produces the constancy of energy in his theorem. This is why the Friedmann equation is considered by some physicists, as a statement of conservation. Motz has argued, the constancy of energy as spacetime expands is an unfounded assumption. I think the equation of state though is a reasonable description for late cosmology, not too sure when the universe was young and curvature dominated. It is these sistuations that can easily lead to non-conservation, in at least two different ways I know about, both involving on-shell and off-shell matter. Carrol seems to believe the universe does not globally conserve energy but for different reasons, such as no global time means no translation with energy and so no conservation.
  23. mini motor

    a motor small as a foot, i'm not sure it's possible. Whether it is an electric motor or a combustion engine, there are physical limitations to matter. So, to produce the same torque as a car's motor with smaller motor, this last has to be made of stronger materials (stronger than steel), materials that can supporte higher temperature,...etc So maybe we should ask physicist first about this.
  24. The end of the quantum vacuum catastrophe ?

    The equation of state w=-1 for the cosmological constant is valid and agrees with observational evidence thus far. What is not mentioned is that it is the same equation of state for an incomparable fluid which can be mathematically defined under the Euler hydrostatic equations. ( Though few textbooks will mention this either). An equation of state in essence gives us a dimensionless value for the energy density to in essence, pressure influence. Via the ideal gas laws. Later tonight I will try to find the mathematical proof for the W=-1 with regards to Lambda. They can be tricky to find.
  25. The Cause of Prime Numbers ( Suggestion)

    Have you heard of casting out nines? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casting_out_nines
  26. Some interesting information: It is believed that '' the fourth dimension is manifested in observable three dimensions as the curvature path of a moving infinitesimal (test) particle'' https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-dimensional_space In the space and time uncertainty, though it is interpreted normally in terms of the results from scattered particles, it may also turn out that time functions like an observable with true units of [math]ct[/math] because of this very simple understanding of how the fourth dimension of space is considered an observable as the curvature experienced in three dimensional space.
  27. Harvey Weinstein

    Wasn't Ronald Reagan a Hollywood Actor; isn't Arnold Schwarzenegger as well? Donald Trump is a reality TV star and Kid Rock is running as a Republican in MI. I never understood the well worn claim that the entertainment industry as a whole is all a specific thing socially or politically. Mr. Hollywood royalty Charleston Heston was the face of the NRA. All entertainment celebrities aren't the same. You can't lump Jesse "the Body" Ventura's libertarianism in with Martin Sheen's left-wing activism.
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